The tools of policy formulation: new perspectives and new challenges

Jordan, Andrew ORCID:, Turnpenny, John and Rayner, Timothy (2015) The tools of policy formulation: new perspectives and new challenges. In: The Tools of Policy Formulation. Edward Elgar, pp. 267-294. ISBN 9781783477036

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It is generally accepted that policy tools and instruments exist at all stages of the policy process (Howlett 2011, p. 22). But as was pointed out in Chapter 1, only some tools and instruments, operating at certain policy stages, have garnered the sustained analytical attention of policy researchers. Policy formulation – a very important but imperfectly understood stage – has certainly been targeted by developers of new tools, ranging from foresight and scenario tools that seek to open up problem framings and conceptualizations, through to tools like cost–benefit analysis (CBA) that seek to recommend preferred policy solutions. Tool developers and policy analysts have also made many normative recommendations on how these and other policy formulation tools should be used (Vining and Weimer 2010; Dunn 2004). But as was made clear in Chapter 1, mainstream policy researchers have largely ignored policy formulation tools, meaning that a lot less is known about how they have actually been utilized in practice. As Howlett et al. (Chapter 8) suggest, policy researchers have long suspected that they probably play some role in structuring policymaking activity, but what that function is remains a largely unexplored research topic.

Item Type: Book Section
Additional Information: A PDF version of this book is available for free in open access via the Elgaronline platform -
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Arts and Humanities > School of Politics, Philosophy, Language and Communication Studies

University of East Anglia > Faculty of Arts and Humanities > Research Groups > Political, Social and International Studies
Faculty of Science > School of Environmental Sciences
Depositing User: Pure Connector
Date Deposited: 27 Jan 2016 15:00
Last Modified: 19 Apr 2023 10:30
DOI: 10.4337/9781783477043

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