Cognitive difficulties following adversity are not related to mental health: findings from the ABCD study

Vedechkina, Maria and Holmes, Joni ORCID: (2023) Cognitive difficulties following adversity are not related to mental health: findings from the ABCD study. Development and Psychopathology. ISSN 0954-5794

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Early life adversity is associated with differences in cognition and mental health that can impact on daily functioning. This study uses a hybrid machine learning approach that combines random forest classification with hierarchical clustering to clarify whether there are cognitive differences between individuals who have experienced moderate-to-severe adversity relative to those have not experienced adversity, to explore whether different forms of adversity are associated with distinct cognitive alterations and whether these such alterations are related to mental health using data from the ABCD study (n=5,955). Cognitive measures spanning language, reasoning, memory, risk-taking, affective control, and reward-processing predicted whether a child had a history of adversity with reasonable accuracy (67%), and with good specificity and sensitivity (>70%). Two subgroups were identified within the adversity group and two within the no adversity group that were distinguished by cognitive ability (low vs high). There was no evidence for specific associations between the type of adverse exposure and cognitive profile. Worse cognition predicted lower levels of mental health in unexposed children. However, while children who experience adversity had elevated mental health difficulties, their mental health did not differ as a function of cognitive ability, thus providing novel insight into the heterogeneity of psychiatric risk.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Data availability: Data used in the preparation of this article were obtained from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study ( ), held in the NIMH Data Archive. This is a multisite, longitudinal study designed to recruit more than 10,000 children age 9-10 and follow them over 10 years into early adulthood. A listing of participating sites and a complete listing of the study investigators can be found at . ABCD consortium investigators designed and implemented the study and/or provided data but did not participate in analysis or writing of this report. This manuscript reflects the views of the authors and may not reflect the opinions or views of the NIH or ABCD consortium investigators. The ABCD Study is supported by the National Institutes of Health and additional federal partners under award numbers U01DA041048, U01DA050989, U01DA051016, U01DA041022, U01DA051018, U01DA051037, U01DA050987, U01DA041174, U01DA041106, U01DA041117, U01DA041028, U01DA041134, U01DA050988, U01DA051039, U01DA041156, U01DA041025, U01DA041120, U01DA051038, U01DA041148, U01DA041093, U01DA041089, U24DA041123, U24DA041147. A full list of supporters is available at . The ABCD data repository grows and changes over time. The ABCD data used in this report came from 10.15154/1523041. DOIs can be found at . Funding Information: This research was funded by the UK Medical Research Council, Grant MC-A0606-5PQ41.
Uncontrolled Keywords: adolescent,adversity,childhood,cognition,keywords:,mental health,developmental and educational psychology,psychiatry and mental health,sdg 3 - good health and well-being ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/3200/3204
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Social Sciences > School of Psychology
UEA Research Groups: Faculty of Social Sciences > Research Groups > Cognition, Action and Perception
Faculty of Social Sciences > Research Groups > Developmental Science
Related URLs:
Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 13 Sep 2023 12:30
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2024 01:38
DOI: 10.1017/S0954579423001220


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