Slow down: Behavioural and physiological effects of reducing eating rate

Hawton, Katherine, Ferriday, Danielle, Rogers, Peter, Toner, Paula, Brooks, Jonathan ORCID:, Holly, Jeffrey, Biernacka, Kalina, Hamilton-Shield, Julian and Hinton, Elanor (2019) Slow down: Behavioural and physiological effects of reducing eating rate. Nutrients, 11 (1). ISSN 2072-6643

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Slowing eating rate appears to be an effective strategy for reducing food intake. This feasibility study investigated the effect of eating rate on post-meal responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), plasma gastrointestinal hormone concentrations, appetite ratings, memory for recent eating, and snack consumption. Twenty-one participants (mean age 23 years with healthy body mass index) were randomly assigned to consume a 600 kcal meal at either a “normal” or “slow” rate (6 vs. 24 min). Immediately afterwards, participants rated meal enjoyment and satisfaction. FMRI was performed 2-h post-meal during a memory task about the meal. Appetite, peptide YY, and ghrelin were measured at baseline and every 30 min for 3 h. Participants were given an ad-libitum snack three hours post-meal. Results were reported as effect sizes (Cohen’s d) due to the feasibility sample size. The normal rate group found the meal more enjoyable (effect size = 0.5) and satisfying (effect size = 0.6). Two hours post-meal, the slow rate group reported greater fullness (effect size = 0.7) and more accurate portion size memory (effect sizes = 0.4), with a linear relationship between time taken to make portion size decisions and the BOLD response in satiety and reward brain regions. Ghrelin suppression post-meal was greater in the slow rate group (effect size = 0.8). Three hours post-meal, the slow rate group consumed on average 25% less energy from snacks (effect size = 0.5). These data offer novel insights about mechanisms underlying how eating rate affects food intake and have implications for the design of effective weight-management interventions.

Item Type: Article
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Social Sciences > School of Psychology
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 10 Feb 2022 10:30
Last Modified: 22 Oct 2022 17:33
DOI: 10.3390/nu11010050


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