Who carries the weight of water? Fetching water in rural and urban areas and the implications for water security

Geere, Jo-Anne ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9071-2778 and Cortobius, Moa (2017) Who carries the weight of water? Fetching water in rural and urban areas and the implications for water security. Water Alternatives, 10 (2). pp. 513-540. ISSN 1965-0175

[thumbnail of Published manuscript]
PDF (Published manuscript) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial Share Alike.

Download (1MB) | Preview


The global burden of fetching water, particularly its effects on individuals and societies, is largely unknown because comparative analysis of the global data available is incomplete and scarce. To address this information gap, this article presents a synthesis of the data on water-fetching from households in 23 countries. In rural areas of the dataset almost 50% of the population still have to bring water from a source outside of their home or yard. Women generally carry the main responsibility for fetching water; however, in many countries and in particular in urban areas, men also take on a great share of this work. The mean single trip time to collect water ranges from 10 to 65 minutes in urban areas with an average increase or decrease of 2 to 13 minutes in rural areas. Further, up to 60% of children support the collection of wood and water, in some countries spending up to 11.3 hours per week. Water fetching continues to have the greatest impact on women and children in poorer rural areas and is likely to be a substantial barrier to household water security and sustainable development in regions most in need of sustainable development.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: global data,health impacts,mics surveys,time,water fetching
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Health Sciences
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
University of East Anglia > Faculty of Science > Research Centres > Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Pure Connector
Date Deposited: 24 Jun 2017 05:06
Last Modified: 21 Oct 2022 13:31
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/63834

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item