Growth in stratospheric chlorine from short-lived chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol

Hossaini, R., Chipperfield, M. P., Saiz-Lopez, A., Harrison, J. J., von Glasow, R., Sommariva, R., Atlas, E., Navarro, M., Montzka, S. A., Feng, W., Dhomse, S., Harth, C., Muehle, J., Lunder, C., O'Doherty, S., Young, D., Reimann, S., Vollmer, M. K., Krummel, P. B. and Bernath, P. F. (2015) Growth in stratospheric chlorine from short-lived chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. Geophysical Research Letters, 42 (11). pp. 4573-4580. ISSN 0094-8276

[img]
Preview
PDF (Hossaini_et_al_2015) - Published Version
Download (378kB) | Preview

Abstract

We have developed a chemical mechanism describing the tropospheric degradation of chlorine containing very short-lived substances (VSLS). The scheme was included in a global atmospheric model and used to quantify the stratospheric injection of chlorine from anthropogenic VSLS between 2005 and 2013. By constraining the model with surface measurements of chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), trichloroethene (C2HCl3), and 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl), we infer a 2013 mml:msubsup mixing ratio of 123 parts per trillion (ppt). Stratospheric injection of source gases dominates this supply, accounting for approximate to 83% of the total. The remainder comes from VSLS-derived organic products, phosgene (COCl2, 7%) and formyl chloride (CHClO, 2%), and also hydrogen chloride (HCl, 8%). Stratospheric increased by approximate to 52% between 2005 and 2013, with a mean growth rate of 3.7pptCl/yr. This increase is due to recent and ongoing growth in anthropogenic CH(2)Cl(2)the most abundant chlorinated VSLS not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ©2015. The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Uncontrolled Keywords: dichloromethane,vsls,ozone,stratosphere,montreal protocol,phosgene,in-situ measurements,tropical tropopause layer,climate model,ozone loss,bromine,transport,hcl,bromocarbons,troposphere,chemistry
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Science > School of Environmental Sciences
Depositing User: Pure Connector
Date Deposited: 10 Aug 2015 08:32
Last Modified: 22 Jul 2020 00:21
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/54026
DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063783

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item