Direct costs of pulmonary tuberculosis among patients receiving treatment in Bauchi State, Nigeria

Umar, Nisser, Abubakar, I, Fordham, Richard and Bachmann, Max (2012) Direct costs of pulmonary tuberculosis among patients receiving treatment in Bauchi State, Nigeria. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 16 (6). pp. 835-40. ISSN 1027-3719

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BACKGROUND: To access tuberculosis (TB) services, patients have to bear the costs of out-of-pocket expenditures or direct costs for transport, drugs and other services that are not provided free-of-charge. These costs could represent a barrier to care, especially in a country such as Nigeria, where per capita gross national income is only US$1160 and 46% of the urban population live below the poverty line. OBJECTIVE: To describe the direct costs of TB diagnosis and treatment in Bauchi State, Nigeria, from the patient's perspective. METHODS: A cross-sectional study. A sample size of 255 patients was randomly selected from 27 of 67 facilities in Bauchi State, Nigeria. RESULTS: The median out-of-pocket cost for hospitalised patients was estimated at US$166.11, while ambulatory patients paid an estimated median cost of US$94.16, equivalent to about 9-38% of their average annual income. Female patients spent a higher proportion of their income on diagnosis and treatment than males (P < 0.0001). The median out-of-pocket costs borne by patients before, during and after diagnosis were estimated at respectively US$35.23, US$27.12 and US$23.43 for ambulatory patients, and additional average out-of-pocket spending of US$66.44 for patients hospitalised during their illness. Pre-diagnosis, diagnosis and post-diagnosis out-of-pocket spending did not vary significantly by human immunodeficiency virus status (P > 0.05) and sex (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The costs of anti-tuberculosis treatment found in this study are expensive and potentially catastrophic for many patients and their families.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: young adult,nigeria,financing, personal,health expenditures,humans,chi-square distribution,aged,child,health services accessibility,models, economic,income,ambulatory care,health care costs,drug costs,cross-sectional studies,tuberculosis, pulmonary,adult,treatment outcome,middle aged,hospital costs,antitubercular agents,adolescent,male,female,sdg 3 - good health and well-being ,/dk/atira/pure/sustainabledevelopmentgoals/good_health_and_well_being
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
Depositing User: Pure Connector
Date Deposited: 26 Jun 2013 11:10
Last Modified: 29 Apr 2022 02:32
DOI: 10.5588/ijtld.10.0774

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