Climate Record: Surface Temperature Trends

Jones, P. D. ORCID: and Osborn, T. J. ORCID: (2024) Climate Record: Surface Temperature Trends. In: Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences. Elsevier. ISBN 9780124095489

Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy)


Surface temperatures rose by 0.7–0.8°C during the 20th century, and have continued to warm during the first 23 years of the 21st century. This article addresses the quality of the basic temperature data over the terrestrial and marine domains. The warming since the 19th century did not occur in a linear fashion but in two periods, from about 1920 to 1945 and since about 1975. Spatial patterns of the change over the last 100 years indicate most regions have had statistically significant warming, except for some high latitudes of the Atlantic and Southern Oceans. Changes in temperature are also assessed in greater detail: showing that the warming occurred more by reductions in cold extremes compared to increases in warm extremes and more at night than during the daytime. The 20th and early 21st century warming is finally placed in a longer context by considering millennial-length paleoclimatic information from many diverse proxies. The latest evidence shows that the 20th century was likely the warmest of the last two millennia and the warming rate during it has been unprecedented during this period. The 1990s (1991–2000) was the warmest decade of the 20th century (0.32°C above the 1961–90 period) and 1998 the warmest year 0.58°C. The first decade of the 21st century (2001–10) was warmer again, 0.24°C above the 1990s, and the last complete decade (2011–20) was warmer again, 0.20°C above the 2000s. The 23 warmest years are all the years from 2001 to 2023, except 2008 was cooler than 1998. The four warmest years are: 2023 (1.06°C above 1961–90), 2016 (0.93°C), 2020 (0.92°C) and 2019 (0.89°C).

Item Type: Book Section
Faculty \ School: University of East Anglia Research Groups/Centres > Theme - ClimateUEA
Faculty of Science > School of Environmental Sciences
UEA Research Groups: Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Climatic Research Unit
Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences
Faculty of Social Sciences > Research Centres > Water Security Research Centre
Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 07 May 2024 11:30
Last Modified: 15 May 2024 11:30
DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-323-96026-7.00037-0

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item