Applications of urinary extracellular vesicles in the diagnosis and active surveillance of prostate cancer

Smith, Stephanie F. ORCID:, Brewer, Daniel S. ORCID:, Hurst, Rachel and Cooper, Colin S. ORCID: (2024) Applications of urinary extracellular vesicles in the diagnosis and active surveillance of prostate cancer. Cancers, 16 (9). ISSN 2072-6694

[thumbnail of cancers-16-01717]
PDF (cancers-16-01717) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB) | Preview


Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer among men in the UK, causing significant health and economic burdens. Diagnosis and risk prognostication can be challenging due to the genetic and clinical heterogeneity of prostate cancer as well as uncertainties in our knowledge of the underlying biology and natural history of disease development. Urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) are microscopic, lipid bilayer defined particles released by cells that carry a variety of molecular cargoes including nucleic acids, proteins and other molecules. Urine is a plentiful source of prostate-derived EVs. In this narrative review, we summarise the evidence on the function of urinary EVs and their applications in the evolving field of prostate cancer diagnostics and active surveillance. EVs are implicated in the development of all hallmarks of prostate cancer, and this knowledge has been applied to the development of multiple diagnostic tests, which are largely based on RNA and miRNA. Common gene probes included in multi-probe tests include PCA3 and ERG, and the miRNAs miR-21 and miR-141. The next decade will likely bring further improvements in the diagnostic accuracy of biomarkers as well as insights into molecular biological mechanisms of action that can be translated into opportunities in precision uro-oncology.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding: S.F.S is funded by a NIHR Doctoral Research Fellowship (NIHR unique award identifier 303302). The views expressed are those of the author and not necessarily those of the NIHR or the Department of Health and Social Care.
Uncontrolled Keywords: sdg 3 - good health and well-being ,/dk/atira/pure/sustainabledevelopmentgoals/good_health_and_well_being
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
UEA Research Groups: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Research Groups > Cancer Studies
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Research Centres > Metabolic Health
Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 02 May 2024 13:30
Last Modified: 06 May 2024 01:29
DOI: 10.3390/cancers16091717


Downloads per month over past year

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item