Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution

Read, Betsy A., Kegel, Jessica, Klute, Mary J., Kuo, Alan, Lefebvre, Stephane C., Maumus, Florian, Mayer, Christoph, Miller, John, Monier, Adam, Salamov, Asaf, Young, Jeremy, Aguilar, Maria, Claverie, Jean Michel, Frickenhaus, Stephan, Gonzalez, Karina, Herman, Emily K., Lin, Yao Cheng, Napier, Johnathan, Ogata, Hiroyuki, Sarno, Analissa F., Shmutz, Jeremy, Schroeder, Declan, De Vargas, Colomban, Verret, Frederic, von Dassow, Peter, Valentin, Klaus, van de Peer, Yves, Wheeler, Glen, Dacks, Joel B., Delwiche, Charles F., Dyhrman, Sonya T., Glöckner, Gernot, John, Uwe, Richards, Thomas, Worden, Alexandra Z., Zhang, Xiaoyu, Grigoriev, Igor V., Allen, Andrew E., Bidle, Kay, Borodovsky, Mark, Bowler, Chris, Brownlee, Colin, Cock, J. Mark, Elias, Marek, Gladyshev, Vadim N., Groth, Marco, Guda, Chittibabu, Hadaegh, Ahmad, Iglesias-Rodriguez, Maria Debora, Jenkins, Jerry, Jones, Bethan M., Lawson, Tracy, Leese, Florian, Lindquist, Erika, Lobanov, Alexei, Lomsadze, Alexandre, Malik, Shehre Banoo, Marsh, Mary E., MacKinder, Luke, Mock, Thomas ORCID:, Mueller-Roeber, Bernd, Pagarete, António, Parker, Micaela, Probert, Ian, Quesneville, Hadi, Raines, Christine, Rensing, Stefan A., Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio, Richier, Sophie, Rokitta, Sebastian, Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro, Soanes, Darren M., van der Giezen, Mark, Wahlund, Thomas M., Williams, Bryony, Wilson, Willie, Wolfe, Gordon and Wurch, Louie L. (2013) Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution. Nature, 499 (7457). pp. 209-213. ISSN 0028-0836

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Coccolithophores have influenced the global climate for over 200 million years. These marine phytoplankton can account for 20 per cent of total carbon fixation in some systems. They form blooms that can occupy hundreds of thousands of square kilometres and are distinguished by their elegantly sculpted calcium carbonate exoskeletons (coccoliths), rendering them visible from space. Although coccolithophores export carbon in the form of organic matter and calcite to the sea floor, they also release CO 2 in the calcification process. Hence, they have a complex influence on the carbon cycle, driving either CO 2 production or uptake, sequestration and export to the deep ocean. Here we report the first haptophyte reference genome, from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain CCMP1516, and sequences from 13 additional isolates. Our analyses reveal a pan genome (core genes plus genes distributed variably between strains) probably supported by an atypical complement of repetitive sequence in the genome. Comparisons across strains demonstrate that E. huxleyi, which has long been considered a single species, harbours extensive genome variability reflected in different metabolic repertoires. Genome variability within this species complex seems to underpin its capacity both to thrive in habitats ranging from the equator to the subarctic and to form large-scale episodic blooms under a wide variety of environmental conditions.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding Information: Acknowledgements Joint Genome Institute (JGI) contributions were supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under contract no. 7DE-AC02-05CH11231. We thank A. Gough for assistance with figures, C. Gentemann for Fig. 3 ocean colour analysis and P. Keeling for discussions.
Uncontrolled Keywords: general,sdg 13 - climate action,sdg 14 - life below water ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1000
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Science > School of Environmental Sciences
UEA Research Groups: Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences
Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Environmental Biology
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 08 Mar 2024 12:33
Last Modified: 11 Mar 2024 01:20
DOI: 10.1038/nature12221

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