Follow-up investigation into Cryptosporidium prevalence and transmission in Western European dairy farms

Hoque, Sumaiya, Pinto, Pedro, Ribeiro, Cláudia A., Canniere, Evi, Daandels, Yvonne, Dellevoet, Martine, Bourgeois, Anne, Hammouma, Ourida, Hunter, Paul ORCID:, Gentekaki, Eleni, Kváč, Martin, Follet, Jérôme and Tsaousis, Anastasios D. (2023) Follow-up investigation into Cryptosporidium prevalence and transmission in Western European dairy farms. Veterinary Parasitology, 318. ISSN 0304-4017

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Cryptosporidium parvum is an enteric parasite and a major contributor to acute enteritis in calves worldwide, causing an important economic burden for farmers. This parasite poses a major public health threat through transmission between livestock and humans. Our previous pilot study in Western Europe revealed a high prevalence of Cryptosporidium in calves of dairy farms. In the sequel study herein, 936 faecal samples were collected from the same 51 dairy farms across Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. Following DNA extraction, Cryptosporidium screening was carried out using nested-PCR amplification targeting the SSU rRNA gene. All positive samples were sequenced, and phylogenetic analyses were used to identify the Cryptosporidium spp. present. The 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene was also sequenced to determine the C. parvum subtypes present. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium ranged from 23.3% to 25%, across the three countries surveyed. The parasite was found in most of the farms sampled, with 90.2% testing positive. Cryptosporidium parvum, C. bovis, C. ryanae and C. andersoni were all identified, with the former being the most predominant, representing 71.4% of all infections. Cryptosporidium parvum was associated with pre-weaned calves, while other species were associated with older animals. Subtyping of gp60 gene revealed nine subtypes, eight of which have previously been reported to cause clinical disease in humans. Similarly to the first study, vertical transmission was not a major contributor to Cryptosporidium spread. Our study highlights the need for further investigation into cryptosporidiosis transmission, and future studies will require a One Health approach to reduce the impact of this disease.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding Information: From September 2020 to July 2021, veterinarians collected a total of 936 faecal samples from 51 dairy farms were – 17 in Belgium, 15 in France and 19 in the Netherlands. We aimed to collect samples from up to 10 calves (up to 3 months of age) and their mothers. In cases where farms had less than 10 calves, fewer samples were collected. Diarrhoeic and apparently healthy animals were included in a random selection. Faeces were taken directly from the rectum, using a single pair of disposable gloves. This study was conducted as a cross-border collaboration under the Health for Dairy Cows (H4DC) project, funded by the Interreg-2-seas programme. This is a European Territorial Cooperation programme covering the Flanders region of Belgium, the Hauts-de-France region in France and the western part of the Netherlands. These regions experience similar maritime temperate climates. The main objective of the project is to reduce the disease burden and economic impact of Cryptosporidium spp. on dairy farms. Publisher Copyright: © 2023 Elsevier B.V.
Uncontrolled Keywords: belgium,cryptosporidium,dairy cows,diarrhoea,epidemiology,france,prevalence,the netherlands,parasitology,veterinary(all),sdg 3 - good health and well-being ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2400/2405
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 13 Jan 2024 01:36
Last Modified: 13 Jan 2024 01:36
DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2023.109920

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