Refined diet consumption increases neuroinflammatory signalling through bile acid dysmetabolism

Connell, Emily, Blokker, Britt, Kellingray, Lee, Le Gall, Gwénaëlle ORCID:, Philo, Mark, Pontifex, Matthew G. ORCID:, Narbad, Arjan, Müller, Michael ORCID: and Vauzour, David ORCID: (2024) Refined diet consumption increases neuroinflammatory signalling through bile acid dysmetabolism. Nutritional Neuroscience. ISSN 1028-415X

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Over recent decades, dietary patterns have changed significantly due to the increasing availability of convenient, ultra-processed refined foods. Refined foods are commonly depleted of key bioactive compounds, which have been associated with several deleterious health conditions. As the gut microbiome can influence the brain through a bidirectional communication system known as the ‘microbiota-gut-brain axis’, the consumption of refined foods has the potential to affect cognitive health. In this study, multi-omics approaches were employed to assess the effect of a refined diet on the microbiota-gut-brain axis, with a particular focus on bile acid metabolism. Mice maintained on a refined low-fat diet (rLFD), consisting of high sucrose, processed carbohydrates and low fibre content, for eight weeks displayed significant gut microbial dysbiosis, as indicated by diminished alpha diversity metrics (p < 0.05) and altered beta diversity (p < 0.05) when compared to mice receiving a chow diet. Changes in gut microbiota composition paralleled modulation of the metabolome, including a significant reduction in short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate and n-butyrate; p < 0.001) and alterations in bile acid concentrations. Interestingly, the rLFD led to dysregulated bile acid concentrations across both the colon (p < 0.05) and the brain (p < 0.05) which coincided with altered neuroinflammatory gene expression. In particular, the concentration of TCA, TDCA and T-α-MCA was inversely correlated with the expression of NF-κB1, a key transcription factor in neuroinflammation. Overall, our results suggest a novel link between a refined low-fat diet and detrimental neuronal processes, likely in part through modulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and bile acid dysmetabolism.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: refined diet,microbiota-gut-brain axis,microbiome,metabolome,bile acid dysmetabolism,neuroinflammation,fibres,refined carbohydrates,fibres,microbiome,refined carbohydrates,neuroinflammation,bile acid dysmetabolism,microbiota-gut-brain axis,metabolome,nutrition and dietetics,neuroscience(all),medicine (miscellaneous) ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2900/2916
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 05 Jan 2024 01:51
Last Modified: 16 Jan 2024 01:36
DOI: 10.1080/1028415X.2023.2301165

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