Defended to the nines: 25 years of resistance gene cloning identifies nine mechanisms for R protein function

Kourelis, Jiorgos ORCID: and van der Hoorn, Renier A. L. (2018) Defended to the nines: 25 years of resistance gene cloning identifies nine mechanisms for R protein function. Plant Cell, 30 (2). pp. 285-299. ISSN 1040-4651

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Plants have many, highly variable resistance (R) gene loci, which provide resistance to a variety of pathogens. The first R gene to be cloned, maize (Zea mays) Hm1, was published over 25 years ago, and since then, many different R genes have been identified and isolated. The encoded proteins have provided clues to the diverse molecular mechanisms underlying immunity. Here, we present a meta-analysis of 314 cloned R genes. The majority of R genes encode cell surface or intracellular receptors, and we distinguish nine molecular mechanisms by which R proteins can elevate or trigger disease resistance: direct (1) or indirect (2) perception of pathogen-derived molecules on the cell surface by receptor-like proteins and receptor-like kinases; direct (3) or indirect (4) intracellular detection of pathogen-derived molecules by nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors, or detection through integrated domains (5); perception of transcription activator-like effectors through activation of executor genes (6); and active (7), passive (8), or host reprogramming-mediated (9) loss of susceptibility. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of R genes are only understood for a small proportion of known R genes, a clearer understanding of mechanisms is emerging and will be crucial for rational engineering and deployment of novel R genes.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding Information: This work was supported by the European Research Council (616449), by the Clarendon Fund, and by the University of Oxford.
Uncontrolled Keywords: plant science,cell biology ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1100/1110
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Science > The Sainsbury Laboratory
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 07 Dec 2023 01:45
Last Modified: 01 Feb 2024 03:07
DOI: 10.1105/tpc.17.00579


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