Climate-induced storminess forces major increases in future storm surge hazard in the South China Sea region

Wood, Melissa, Haigh, Ivan D., Le, Quan Quan, Nguyen, Hung Nghia, Tran, Hoang Ba, Darby, Stephen E., Marsh, Robert, Skliris, Nikolaos, Hirschi, Joël J.-M., Nicholls, Robert J. ORCID: and Bloemendaal, Nadia (2023) Climate-induced storminess forces major increases in future storm surge hazard in the South China Sea region. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 23 (7). pp. 2475-2504. ISSN 1561-8633

[thumbnail of nhess-23-2475-2023]
PDF (nhess-23-2475-2023) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (7MB) | Preview


Coastal floods, driven by extreme sea levels, are one of the most dangerous natural hazards. The people at highest risk are those living in low-lying coastal areas exposed to tropical-cyclone-forced storm surges. Here we apply a novel modelling framework to estimate past and/or present and future storm-surge-level and extreme-sea-level probabilities along the coastlines of southern China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, and Malaysia. A regional hydrodynamic model is configured to simulate 10 000 years of synthetic tropical cyclone activity, representative of a past/present (1980–2017) and high-emission-scenario future (2015–2050) period. Results show that extreme storm surges, and therefore total water levels, will increase substantially in the coming decades, driven by an increase in the frequency of intense tropical cyclones. Storm surges along the southern Chinese and northern and southern Vietnamese coastlines increase by up to 1 m, significantly larger than expected changes in mean sea-level rise over the same period. The length of coastline that is presently exposed to storm surge levels of 2.5 m or greater will more than double by 2050. Sections of Cambodian, Thai, and Malaysian coastlines are projected to experience storm surges (at higher return periods) in the future, not previously seen, due to a southward shift in tropical cyclone tracks. Given these findings, coastal flood management and adaptation in these areas should be reviewed for their resilience against future extreme sea levels.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Financial information: This work was supported by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (grant no. NE/S003150/1) and, in Vietnam, by the National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED-RCUK) fund and the Ministry of Science and Technology (Mekong River project, code DTDL-48/18). Nadia Bloemendaal was funded by a VICI grant from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research 569 (NWO grant no. 453-13-006) and the ERC Advanced Grant (COASTMOVE (grant no. 884442)).
Uncontrolled Keywords: earth and planetary sciences(all),sdg 13 - climate action ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1900
UEA Research Groups: University of East Anglia Schools > Faculty of Science > Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research
Faculty of Science > Research Centres > Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research
Related URLs:
Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 13 Jul 2023 10:32
Last Modified: 29 Sep 2023 08:30
DOI: 10.5194/nhess-23-2475-2023


Downloads per month over past year

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item