The effect of sex and protein supplementation on bone metabolism during a 36-hour military field exercise in energy deficit

O'Leary, Thomas J., Coombs, Charlotte V., Edwards, Victoria C., Blacker, Sam D., Knight, Rebecca L., Koivula, Fiona N., Tang, Jonathan C. Y. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6305-6333, Fraser, William D., Wardle, Sophie L. and Greeves, Julie P. (2023) The effect of sex and protein supplementation on bone metabolism during a 36-hour military field exercise in energy deficit. Journal of Applied Physiology, 134 (6). pp. 1481-1495. ISSN 8750-7587

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Abstract

This study investigated sex differences in, and the effect of protein supplementation on, bone metabolism during a 36-h military field exercise. Forty-four British Army Officer cadets (14 women) completed a 36-h field exercise. Participants consumed either their habitual diet [n = 14 women (Women) and n = 15 men (Men Controls)] or the habitual diet with an additional 46.6 g·day−1 of protein for men [n = 15 men (Men Protein)]. Women and Men Protein were compared with Men Controls to examine the effect of sex and protein supplementation. Circulating markers of bone metabolism were measured before, 24 h after (postexercise), and 96 h after (recovery) the field exercise. Beta C-telopeptide cross links of type 1 collagen and cortisol were not different between time points or Women and Men Controls (P ≥ 0.094). Procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide decreased from baseline to postexercise (P < 0.001) and recovery (P < 0.001) in Women and Men Controls. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increased from baseline to post-exercise (P = 0.006) and decreased from postexercise to recovery (P = 0.047) in Women and Men Controls. Total 25(OH)D increased from baseline to postexercise (P = 0.038) and recovery (P < 0.001) in Women and Men Controls. Testosterone decreased from baseline to post-exercise (P < 0.001) and recovery (P = 0.007) in Men Controls, but did not change for Women (all P = 1.000). Protein supplementation in men had no effect on any marker. Men and women experience similar changes to bone metabolism—decreased bone formation and increased PTH—following a short-field exercise. Protein had no protective effect likely because of the energy deficit.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: bone remodeling,energy availability,female athlete triad,stress fracture,medicine(all) ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2700
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
UEA Research Groups: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Research Groups > Musculoskeletal Medicine
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Research Centres > Metabolic Health
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 19 May 2023 08:32
Last Modified: 19 Oct 2023 03:36
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/92103
DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00106.2023

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