Gold nanoparticle-based two-photon fluorescent nanoprobe for monitoring intracellular nitric oxide levels

Arnau del Valle, Carla, Thomas, Paul, Galindo, Francisco, Munoz-Herranz, Maria Paz ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9037-349X and Marin, Maria Jose ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8021-5498 (2023) Gold nanoparticle-based two-photon fluorescent nanoprobe for monitoring intracellular nitric oxide levels. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 11 (15). pp. 3387-3396. ISSN 2050-750X

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Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the regulation of the immune, cardiovascular and nervous systems. Consequently, being able to monitor and quantify intracellular NO levels would provide a greater understanding of the implications of this molecule in the different biological processes, including, for example, in cancer. Here, we report a broadly applicable two-photon excitable fluorescent nanoprobe able to detect and potentially quantify NO levels in an extensive range of cellular environments. The nanoprobe consists of a thiolated photoinduced electron transfer-based two photon fluorescent probe attached onto the surface of 2.4 ± 0.7 nm gold nanoparticles (DANPY-NO@AuNPs). The nanoprobe, which can be synthesised in a reproducible manner and exhibits great stability when stored at room temperature, is able to selectively detect NO in solution, with a dynamic range up to 150 µM, and at pH values of biological relevance. DANPY-NO@AuNPs were able to selectively detect endogenous NO in RAW264.7γ NO- macrophages, THP-1 human leukemic cells; and endogenous and exogenous NO in endothelial cells. The nanoprobe accumulated in the acidic organelles of the tested cell lines showing negligible toxicity. Importantly, DANPY-NO@AuNPs showed potential to quantify intracellular NO concentrations in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The biological evaluation of the nanoprobe was undertaken using confocal laser scanning (images and intracellular emission spectra) and multiphoton microscopies, and flow cytometry. Based on their excellent sensitivity and stability, and outstanding versatility, DANPY-NO@AuNPs can be applied for the spatiotemporal monitoring of in vitro and in vivo NO levels.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding information: The authors would like to thank the Faculty of Sciences and School of Chemistry at the University of East Anglia and Mr. and Mrs. Whittaker oncology fellowship for financial support, and the EPSRC (Grant EP/S017909/1) that supported the purchase of the Edinburgh Instrument FS5 fluorescence spectrometer used in this work.
Uncontrolled Keywords: chemistry(all),materials science(all),biomedical engineering,sdg 3 - good health and well-being ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1600
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Science > School of Chemistry
Faculty of Science
UEA Research Groups: Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Chemistry of Materials and Catalysis
Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Chemistry of Light and Energy
Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Chemistry of Life Processes
Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Centre for Photonics and Quantum Science
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 08 Mar 2023 16:30
Last Modified: 20 Aug 2023 01:31
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/91447
DOI: 10.1039/D3TB00103B

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