On the Southern Hemisphere Stratospheric Response to ENSO and Its Impacts on Tropospheric Circulation

Stone, Kane A., Solomon, Susan, Thompson, David W.J. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5413-4376, Kinnison, Douglas E. and Fyfe, John C. (2022) On the Southern Hemisphere Stratospheric Response to ENSO and Its Impacts on Tropospheric Circulation. Journal of Climate, 35 (6). pp. 1963-1981. ISSN 0894-8755

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Abstract

As the leading mode of Pacific variability, El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) causes vast and widespread climatic impacts, including in the stratosphere. Following discovery of a stratospheric pathway of ENSO to the Northern Hemisphere surface, here we aim to investigate if there is a substantial Southern Hemisphere (SH) stratospheric pathway in relation to austral winter ENSO events. Large stratospheric anomalies connected to ENSO occur on average at high SH latitudes as early as August, peaking at around 10 hPa. An overall colder austral spring Antarctic stratosphere is generally associated with the warm phase of the ENSO cycle, and vice versa. This behavior is robust among reanalysis and six separate model ensembles encompassing two different model frameworks. A stratospheric pathway is identified by separating ENSO events that exhibit a stratospheric anomaly from those that do not and comparing to stratospheric extremes that occur during neutral ENSO years. The tropospheric eddy-driven jet response to the stratospheric ENSO pathway is the most robust in the spring following a La Niña, but extends into summer, and is more zonally symmetric compared to the tropospheric ENSO teleconnection. The magnitude of the stratospheric pathway is weaker compared to the tropospheric pathway and therefore, when it is present, has a secondary role. For context, the magnitude is approximately half that of the eddy-driven jet modulation due to austral spring ozone depletion in the model simulations. This work establishes that the stratospheric circulation acts as an intermediary in coupling ENSO variability to variations in the austral spring and summer tropospheric circulation.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding Information: K.S. and S. S. were supported by a gift to MIT from an anonymous donor and by a grant from the National Science Foundation NSF 1848863. D. W. J. T. is supported by NSF AGS-1848785. This research was enabled by the computational and storage resources of NCAR’s Computational and Information Systems Laboratory (CISL), sponsored by the NSF. D. E. K. was partly supported by NSF FESD-1338814. Cheyenne: HPE/SGI ICE XA System (NCAR Community Computing, Boulder, CO, National Center for Atmospheric Research, doi:10.5065/D6RX99HX). We acknowledge Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis for executing and making available the CanESM2 large ensemble simulations, and the Canadian Sea Ice and Snow Evolution (CanSISE) Network for proposing the simulations. The JRA-55 dataset used in this study is from the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis project carried out by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). Funding Information: Acknowledgments. K.S. and S. S. were supported by a gift to MIT from an anonymous donor and by a grant from the National Science Foundation NSF 1848863. D. W. J. T. is supported by NSF AGS-1848785. This research was enabled by the computational and storage resources of NCAR’s Computational and Information Systems Laboratory (CISL), sponsored by the NSF. D. E. K. was partly supported by NSF FESD-1338814. Cheyenne: HPE/SGI ICE XA System (NCAR Community Computing, Boulder, CO, National Center for Atmospheric Research, doi:10.5065/D6RX99HX). We acknowledge Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis for executing and making available the CanESM2 large ensemble simulations, and the Canadian Sea Ice and Snow Evolution (CanSISE) Network for proposing the simulations. The JRA-55 dataset used in this study is from the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis project carried out by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). Publisher Copyright: © 2022 American Meteorological Society.
Uncontrolled Keywords: enso,stratosphere,stratosphere-troposphere coupling,atmospheric science,sdg 12 - responsible consumption and production ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1900/1902
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Science > School of Environmental Sciences
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 13 Oct 2022 10:38
Last Modified: 22 Oct 2022 07:56
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/89037
DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-21-0250.1

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