M2 microglia and macrophages drive oligodendrocyte differentiation during CNS remyelination

Miron, Veronique E., Boyd, Amanda, Zhao, Jing Wei, Yuen, Tracy J., Ruckh, Julia M., Shadrach, Jennifer L., Van Wijngaarden, Peter, Wagers, Amy J., Williams, Anna, Franklin, Robin J.M. and Ffrench-Constant, Charles ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5621-3377 (2013) M2 microglia and macrophages drive oligodendrocyte differentiation during CNS remyelination. Nature Neuroscience, 16 (9). pp. 1211-1218. ISSN 1097-6256

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The lack of therapies for progressive multiple sclerosis highlights the need to understand the regenerative process of remyelination that can follow CNS demyelination. This involves an innate immune response consisting of microglia and macrophages, which can be polarized to distinct functional phenotypes: pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory or immunoregulatory (M2). We found that a switch from an M1- to an M2-dominant response occurred in microglia and peripherally derived macrophages as remyelination started. Oligodendrocyte differentiation was enhanced in vitro with M2 cell conditioned media and impaired in vivo following intra-lesional M2 cell depletion. M2 cell densities were increased in lesions of aged mice in which remyelination was enhanced by parabiotic coupling to a younger mouse and in multiple sclerosis lesions that normally show remyelination. Blocking M2 cell-derived activin-A inhibited oligodendrocyte differentiation during remyelination in cerebellar slice cultures. Thus, our results indicate that M2 cell polarization is essential for efficient remyelination and identify activin-A as a therapeutic target for CNS regeneration.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding Information: We thank the UK Multiple Sclerosis Tissue Bank for providing human brain tissue, F. Roncaroli (Imperial College London) for neuropathological diagnosis of lesions and R. Nicholas (Imperial College London) for providing clinical history of patients. We also thank W. Mungall, J. Huang, M. Harrisingh, A. Jarjour, M. Bechler, M. Swire, A.-C. Nunes-Fonseca, D. Morrison, and C. Watkins for technical assistance. This work was funded by the UK Multiple Sclerosis Society (R.J.M.F. and C.ff.-C.) and the Wellcome Trust (A.W. and C.ff.-C.), and V.E.M. holds a post-doctoral fellowship from the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada.
Uncontrolled Keywords: neuroscience(all) ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2800
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
Faculty of Social Sciences > Norwich Business School
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 16 Jul 2022 00:26
Last Modified: 22 Oct 2022 18:37
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/86273
DOI: 10.1038/nn.3469

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