Fish, omega-3 fatty acids, cognition and dementia risk: Not just a fishy tale

Saleh, Rasha N. M. and Minihane, Anne Marie ORCID: (2022) Fish, omega-3 fatty acids, cognition and dementia risk: Not just a fishy tale. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 81 (1). pp. 27-40. ISSN 0029-6651

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With growing and ageing populations, the incidence of dementia is expected to triple globally by 2050. In the absence of effective drugs to treat or reverse the syndrome, dietary approaches which prevent, or delay disease onset have enormous population health potential. Prospective epidemiological studies and mechanistic insight from experiment models strongly support a positive effect of a high fish and long chain omega-3 fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) intake on a range of cognitive outcomes and dementia risk, with effect sizes equivalent to several years of ageing between the highest and lowest consumers. As reviewed here, an effect of EPA and DHA on neuroinflammation and oxylipin production is likely to in part mediate the neurophysiological benefits. However randomised controlled (RCTs) with EPA and DHA supplementation have produced mixed findings. Insight into the likely modulators of response to intervention and factors which should be considered for future RCTs are given. Furthermore, the impact of APOE genotype on disease risk and response to EPA and DHA supplementation is summarised. The prevalence of dementia is several-fold higher in APOE4 females (∼13% Caucasian populations) relative to the general population, who are emerging as a subgroup who may particularly benefits from DHA intervention, prior to the development of significant pathology.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: alzheimer.s disease,docosahexaenoic acid (dha),eicosapentaenoic acid (epa),neuroinflammation and oxylipins,medicine (miscellaneous),nutrition and dietetics ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2700/2701
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 15 Jul 2022 11:30
Last Modified: 12 Aug 2022 02:35
DOI: 10.1017/S0029665121003700

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