Soluble trace metals associated with atmospheric fine particulate matter in the two most populous cities in Vietnam

Hien, To Thi, Chi, Nguyen Doan Thien, Huy, Duong Huu, Le, Hoang Anh, Oram, David E., Forster, Grant L., Mills, Graham P. and Baker, Alex R. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8365-8953 (2022) Soluble trace metals associated with atmospheric fine particulate matter in the two most populous cities in Vietnam. Atmospheric Environment: X, 15. ISSN 2590-1621

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Abstract

Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City (HCM), the most populous cities in Vietnam, have received increasing global attention because of their poor air pollution status. As part of the recent UK-Vietnam 2-Cities project, the concentrations of trace metals in fine particulate matter have been characterized. 24-hour samples of PM2 were collected at 2 sites in Hanoi and 3 sites in HCM during two 4-week periods in September/October 2018 and March 2019. The soluble fraction of 15 trace metal(oid)s (Fe, Al, Mn, Ti, Zn, V, Cu, Ni, Co, Cd, Pb, Th, Cr, As, and Sb) bound to PM2 were analyzed by ICP-MS. The results show that Zn was the most abundant soluble metal in PM2 in both cities, with very large numbers of road vehicles (e.g. tyre wear) likely contributing in both cities and non-ferrous metal production being a substantial additional source in Hanoi. Fe and Al, derived from crustal sources, were the dominant metals after Zn. Most trace metals concentrations in Hanoi were higher than in HCM, especially toxic metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr and As. V and Ni were the only two metals having higher concentrations in HCM than in Hanoi, likely due to shipping emissions (combustion of heavy fuel oil) that strongly affect the air quality in HCM. Coal-power plants and non-ferrous metal production are likely to be the major sources of trace metals in Hanoi. Health risk assessment shows that a high carcinogenic risk exists for inhalation exposure of soluble trace metals bound to PM2 in both cities.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Acknowledgement This research was funded by the RCUK (Research Councils UK)-NAFOSTED (Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development) Newton Fund Research Partnership under grant number NE/P014771/1. We would like to thank the Le Hong Phong Political School, Vietnam National University of Agriculture and Binh Chanh High School for use of their facilities. We thank Matthew Bradnam and Nat Brown for interesting discussions and Nguyen Tan Thanh, Ho Truong Nam Hai, Phan Le Nhat Duat, Tran Anh Ngan, and Tran Ngoc Chau Tram for assistance with sample collection. The authors acknowledge the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory for the provision of the HYSPLIT model and David Carslaw for providing the Openair package used in this study.
Uncontrolled Keywords: sdg 3 - good health and well-being,sdg 11 - sustainable cities and communities ,/dk/atira/pure/sustainabledevelopmentgoals/good_health_and_well_being
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Science > School of Environmental Sciences
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 28 Jun 2022 09:30
Last Modified: 24 Jul 2022 00:22
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/85828
DOI: 10.1016/j.aeaoa.2022.100178

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