Interaction of proteins with inverted repeats and cruciform structures in nucleic acids

Bowater, Richard P. ORCID:, Bohálová, Natália and Brázda, Václav (2022) Interaction of proteins with inverted repeats and cruciform structures in nucleic acids. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23 (11). ISSN 1661-6596

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Cruciforms occur when inverted repeat sequences in double-stranded DNA adopt intra-strand hairpins on opposing strands. Biophysical and molecular studies of these structures confirm their characterization as four-way junctions and have demonstrated that several factors influence their stability, including overall chromatin structure and DNA supercoiling. Here, we review our understanding of processes that influence the formation and stability of cruciforms in genomes, covering the range of sequences shown to have biological significance. It is challenging to accurately sequence repetitive DNA sequences, but recent advances in sequencing methods have deepened understanding about the amounts of inverted repeats in genomes from all forms of life. We highlight that, in the majority of genomes, inverted repeats are present in higher numbers than is expected from a random occurrence. It is, therefore, becoming clear that inverted repeats play important roles in regulating many aspects of DNA metabolism, including replication, gene expression, and recombination. Cruciforms are targets for many architectural and regulatory proteins, including topoisomerases, p53, Rif1, and others. Notably, some of these proteins can induce the formation of cruciform structures when they bind to DNA. Inverted repeat sequences also influence the evolution of genomes, and growing evidence highlights their significance in several human diseases, suggesting that the inverted repeat sequences and/or DNA cruciforms could be useful therapeutic targets in some cases.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding: This research was funded by The Czech Science Foundation (No. 22-21903S) to V.B.
Uncontrolled Keywords: cruciform,dna base sequence,dna structure,dna supercoiling,epigenetics,genome stability,inverted repeat,replication,transcription,molecular biology,spectroscopy,catalysis,inorganic chemistry,computer science applications,physical and theoretical chemistry,organic chemistry,sdg 3 - good health and well-being ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1300/1312
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Science > School of Biological Sciences
UEA Research Groups: Faculty of Science > Research Centres > Centre for Molecular and Structural Biochemistry
Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Biosciences Teaching and Education Research
Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Molecular Microbiology
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 23 Jun 2022 16:31
Last Modified: 21 Apr 2023 02:32
DOI: 10.3390/ijms23116171

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