Mendelian nightmares: The germline-restricted chromosome of songbirds

Borodin, Pavel, Chen, Augustin, Forstmeier, Wolfgang, Fouché, Simone, Malinovskaya, Lyubov, Pei, Yifan, Reifová, Radka, Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J. ORCID:, Schlebusch, Stephen A., Sotelo-Muñoz, Manuelita, Torgasheva, Anna, Vontzou, Niki and Suh, Alexander ORCID: (2022) Mendelian nightmares: The germline-restricted chromosome of songbirds. Chromosome Research, 30 (2-3). 255–272. ISSN 0967-3849

[thumbnail of Borodin2022_Article_MendelianNightmaresTheGermline]
PDF (Borodin2022_Article_MendelianNightmaresTheGermline) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB) | Preview


Germline-restricted chromosomes (GRCs) are accessory chromosomes that occur only in germ cells. They are eliminated from somatic cells through programmed DNA elimination during embryo development. GRCs have been observed in several unrelated animal taxa and show peculiar modes of non-Mendelian inheritance and within-individual elimination. Recent cytogenetic and phylogenomic evidence suggests that a GRC is present across the species-rich songbirds, but absent in non-passerine birds, implying that over half of all 10,500 bird species have extensive germline/soma genome differences. Here, we review recent insights gained from genomic, transcriptomic, and cytogenetic approaches with regard to the genetic content, phylogenetic distribution, and inheritance of the songbird GRC. While many questions remain unsolved in terms of GRC inheritance, elimination, and function, we discuss plausible scenarios and future directions for understanding this widespread form of programmed DNA elimination.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding Information: Open access funding provided by Uppsala University. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (20–64-46021) to P.B., L.M., F.J.R.-R., A.S., and A.T.; European Research Council (101002158 GermlineChrom) and Swedish Research Council Vetenskapsrådet (2020–04436) to A.S.; the Max Planck Society to W.F. and Y.P.; the Czech Science Foundation (20-23794S) to R.R.; Sven och Lilly Lawskis fond and the Swiss National Science Foundation (P2EZP3_199841) to S.F.; Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship (875732) to F.J.R.-R.; the Grant Agency of Charles University (grant 1264120) to M.S.-M.; a PhD fellowship from University of East Anglia to N.V.; and an Erasmus + scholarship to A.C.
Uncontrolled Keywords: b chromosome,chromosome elimination,germline-restricted chromosome,soma genome difference,non-mendelian inheritance,genetics ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1300/1311
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Science > School of Biological Sciences
Related URLs:
Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 06 May 2022 03:58
Last Modified: 25 Oct 2022 00:12
DOI: 10.1007/s10577-022-09688-3

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item