Recent advances in near infrared upconverting nanomaterials for targeted photodynamic therapy of cancer

Arnau del Valle, Carla, Hirsch, Thomas and Marin, Maria J. ORCID: (2022) Recent advances in near infrared upconverting nanomaterials for targeted photodynamic therapy of cancer. Methods and Applications in Fluorescence, 10 (3). ISSN 2050-6120

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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a well-established treatment of cancer that uses the toxic reactive oxygen species, including singlet oxygen (1O2), generated by photosensitiser (PS) drugs following irradiation of a specific wavelength to destroy the cancerous cells and tumours. Visible light is commonly used as the excitation source in PDT, which is not ideal for cancer treatment due to its reduced tissue penetration, and thus inefficiency to treat deep-lying tumours. Additionally, these wavelengths exhibit elevated autofluorescence background from the biological tissues which hinders optical biomedical imaging. An alternative to UV-Vis irradiation is the use of near infrared (NIR) excitation for PDT. This can be achieved using upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) functionalised with photosensitiser drugs where UCNPs can be used as an indirect excitation source for the activation of PS drugs yielding to the production of singlet 1O2 following NIR excitation. The use of nanoparticles for PDT is also beneficial due to their tumour targeting capability, either passively via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect or actively via stimuli-responsive targeting and ligand-mediated targeting (i.e. using recognition units that can bind specific receptors only present or overexpressed on tumour cells). Here, we review recent advances in NIR upconverting nanomaterials for PDT of cancer with a clear distinction between those reported nanoparticles that could potentially target the tumour due to accumulation via the EPR effect (passive targeting) and nanoparticle-based systems that contain targeting agents with the aim of actively target the tumour via a molecular recognition process.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding Information: This work was supported by the Faculty of Sciences and School of Chemistry at the University of East Anglia in partnership with Mr and Mrs Whittaker oncology fellowship. The authors have declared that no conflicting interests exist.
Uncontrolled Keywords: cancer,near infrared,photodynamic therapy,targeting agents,upconverting nanoparticles,instrumentation,atomic and molecular physics, and optics,materials science(all),spectroscopy,sdg 3 - good health and well-being ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/3100/3105
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Science > School of Chemistry
UEA Research Groups: Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Chemistry of Materials and Catalysis
Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Chemistry of Light and Energy
Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Chemistry of Life Processes
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 22 Apr 2022 11:30
Last Modified: 19 Aug 2023 00:46
DOI: 10.1088/2050-6120/ac6937

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