Prevalence and determinants of Vitamin D deficiency in 1825 Cape Town primary schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study

Middelkoop, Keren, Walker, Neil, Stewart, Justine, Delport, Carmen, Jolliffe, David A., Nuttall, James, Coussens, Anna K., Naude, Celeste E., Tang, Jonathan C. Y., Fraser, William D., Wilkinson, Robert J., Bekker, Linda-Gail and Martineau, Adrian R. (2022) Prevalence and determinants of Vitamin D deficiency in 1825 Cape Town primary schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study. Nutrients, 14 (6). ISSN 2072-6643

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Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D[25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L) is common among adults in Cape Town, South Africa, but studies investigating vitamin D status of children in this setting are lacking. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency in 1825 Cape Town schoolchildren aged 6–11 years. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 7.6% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 6.5% to 8.9%). Determinants of vitamin D de-ficiency included month of sampling (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for July–September vs. January–March 10.69, 95% CI 5.02 to 22.77; aOR for October–December vs. January–March 6.73, 95% CI 2.82 to 16.08), older age (aOR 1.25 per increasing year, 95% CI: 1.01–1.53) and higher body mass index (BMI; aOR 1.24 per unit increase in BMI-for-age Z-score, 95% CI: 1.03–1.49). In a subset of 370 par-ticipants in whom parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations were measured; these were in-versely related to serum 25(OH)D concentrations (p < 0.001). However, no association between participants with hyperparathyroidism (PTH >6.9 pmol/L) and vitamin D deficiency was seen (p = 0.42). In conclusion, we report that season is the major determinant of vitamin D status among Cape Town primary schoolchildren, with prevalence of vitamin D deficiency ranging from 1.4% in January–March to 22.8% in July–September.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding: This research was funded by the UK Medical Research Council, MR/M026639/1. RJW receives support from the Francis Crick Institute which is funded by Wellcome (FC0010218), Cancer Research UK (FC0010218) and MRC (UK) (FC0010218). He also receives support from Wellcome (203135). For the purposes of open access, the author has applied a CC-BY public copyright to any author-accepted manuscript arising from this submission. Conflicts of Interest: AJM receives grant from Pharma Nord Ltd., DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., the Karl R Pfleger Foundation, AIM Foundation, Thornton & Ross Ltd., Warburtons Ltd. and Hyphens Pharma Ltd.; as well as meeting travel support from Abiogen Pharma. AJM is the DSMB chair, of the VITALITY trial (VITamin D for AdoLescents with HIV to reduce musculoskeletal morbidity and ImmunopaThologY); AJM received vitamin D capsules for clinical trials from Pharma Nord Ltd., Synergy Biologics Ltd. and Cytoplan Ltd. All other authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results. For the purposes of open access, the author has applied a CC-BY public copyright to any author-accepted manuscript arising from this submission.
Uncontrolled Keywords: children,cross-sectional,prevalence,south africa,vitamin d,food science,nutrition and dietetics ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1100/1106
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 17 Mar 2022 15:30
Last Modified: 16 Apr 2022 00:29
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/84097
DOI: 10.3390/nu14061263

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