Human-wildlife conflicts with crocodilians, cetaceans and otters in the tropics and subtropics

Cook, Patrick, Hawes, Joseph E., Campos-Silva, João Vitor and Peres, Carlos A. (2022) Human-wildlife conflicts with crocodilians, cetaceans and otters in the tropics and subtropics. PeerJ, 9. ISSN 2167-8359

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Abstract

Conservation of freshwater biodiversity and management of human-wildlife conflicts are major conservation challenges globally. Human-wildlife conflict occurs due to attacks on people, depredation of fisheries, damage to fishing equipment and entanglement in nets. Here we review the current literature on conflicts with tropical and subtropical crocodilians, cetaceans and otters in freshwater and brackish habitats. We also present a new multispecies case study of conflicts with four freshwater predators in the Western Amazon: black caiman (Melanosuchus niger), giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), boto (Inia geoffrensis) and tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis). Documented conflicts occur with 34 crocodilian, cetacean and otter species. Of the species reviewed in this study, 37.5% had conflicts frequently documented in the literature, with the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) the most studied species. We found conflict severity had a positive relationship with species body mass, and a negative relationship with IUCN Red List status. In the Amazonian case study, we found that the black caiman was ranked as the greatest ‘problem’ followed by the boto, giant otter and tucuxi. There was a significant difference between the responses of local fishers when each of the four species were found entangled in nets. We make recommendations for future research, based on the findings of the review and Amazon case study, including the need to standardise data collection.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This study was funded by a DEFRA Darwin Initiative grant (Ref. 16-001) awarded to Carlos A Peres, a CAPES PhD scholarship (Ref. 1144985) and CAPES postdoctoral grant (Ref. 1666302) to João Vitor Campos-Silva, and a CAPES postdoctoral grant (Ref. 1530532) and internal funding from Anglia Ruskin University to Joseph E. Hawes. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. We are grateful to Franciney Silva da Souza for assisting fieldwork and to all reserve residents for their hospitality and participation in interviews. We wish to thank Frank Hajek and Jessica Groenendijk for allowing us to use their photographs of black caiman and giant otter, and Sannie Brum for photographs of the boto and tucuxi. This publication is part of the Instituto Juru? series (www.institutojurua.org.br). This study was funded by a DEFRA Darwin Initiative grant (Ref. 16-001) awarded to Carlos A Peres, a CAPES PhD scholarship (Ref. 1144985) and CAPES postdoctoral grant (Ref. 1666302) to Jo?o Vitor Campos-Silva, and a CAPES postdoctoral grant (Ref. 1530532) and internal funding from Anglia Ruskin University to Joseph E. Hawes. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The following grant information was disclosed by the authors: DEFRA Darwin Initiative Grant: 16-001. CAPES PhD Scholarship: 1144985. CAPES Postdoctoral Grant: 1666302 and 1530532. Anglia Ruskin University.
Uncontrolled Keywords: amazon,animal attack,aquatic mammal,carnivore,crocodile,dolphin,fisheries,human-wildlife conflict,otter,predator,agricultural and biological sciences(all),biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology(all),neuroscience(all),sdg 15 - life on land ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1100
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Science > School of Environmental Sciences
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 13 Jan 2022 12:30
Last Modified: 15 Jun 2022 11:31
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/83013
DOI: 10.7717/peerj.12688

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