Somite development and regionalisation of the vertebral axial skeleton

Weldon, Shannon A. and Münsterberg, Andrea E. (2021) Somite development and regionalisation of the vertebral axial skeleton. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. ISSN 1084-9521

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Abstract

A critical stage in the development of all vertebrate embryos is the generation of the body plan and its subsequent patterning and regionalisation along the main anterior-posterior axis. This includes the formation of the vertebral axial skeleton. Its organisation begins during early embryonic development with the periodic formation of paired blocks of mesoderm tissue called somites. Here, we review axial patterning of somites, with a focus on studies using amniote model systems – avian and mouse. We summarise the molecular and cellular mechanisms that generate paraxial mesoderm and review how the different anatomical regions of the vertebral column acquire their specific identity and thus shape the body plan. We also discuss the generation of organoids and embryo-like structures from embryonic stem cells, which provide insights regarding axis formation and promise to be useful for disease modelling.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Acknowledgements: We thank Dr Johannes Wittig for graphic illustrations and members of the Münsterberg laboratory for discussions. Funding: This work was supported by the UKRI Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council Norwich Research Park Biosciences Doctoral Training Partnership (Grant number BB/M011216/1).
Uncontrolled Keywords: axial progenitors,axis formation,hox genes,somite patterning,trunk-like structures,developmental biology,cell biology ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1300/1309
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Science > School of Biological Sciences
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 16 Dec 2021 15:30
Last Modified: 04 Jan 2022 16:30
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/82713
DOI: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2021.10.003

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