The biogeographic differentiation of algal microbiomes in the upper ocean from pole to pole

Martin, Kara, Schmidt, Katrin, Toseland, Andrew, Boulton, Chris A., Barry, Kerrie, Beszteri, Bánk, Brussaard, Corina P. D., Clum, Alicia, Daum, Chris G., Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley, Fong, Allison, Foster, Brian, Foster, Bryce, Ginzburg, Michael, Huntemann, Marcel, Ivanova, Natalia N., Kyrpides, Nikos C., Lindquist, Erika, Mukherjee, Supratim, Palaniappan, Krishnaveni, Reddy, T. B. K., Rizkallah, Mariam R., Roux, Simon, Timmermans, Klaas, Tringe, Susannah G., Van De Poll, Willem H., Varghese, Neha, Valentin, Klaus U., Lenton, Timothy M., Grigoriev, Igor V., Leggett, Richard M., Moulton, Vincent and Mock, Thomas (2021) The biogeographic differentiation of algal microbiomes in the upper ocean from pole to pole. Nature Communications, 12 (1). ISSN 2041-1723

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Abstract

Eukaryotic phytoplankton are responsible for at least 20% of annual global carbon fixation. Their diversity and activity are shaped by interactions with prokaryotes as part of complex microbiomes. Although differences in their local species diversity have been estimated, we still have a limited understanding of environmental conditions responsible for compositional differences between local species communities on a large scale from pole to pole. Here, we show, based on pole-to-pole phytoplankton metatranscriptomes and microbial rDNA sequencing, that environmental differences between polar and non-polar upper oceans most strongly impact the large-scale spatial pattern of biodiversity and gene activity in algal microbiomes. The geographic differentiation of co-occurring microbes in algal microbiomes can be well explained by the latitudinal temperature gradient and associated break points in their beta diversity, with an average breakpoint at 14 °C ± 4.3, separating cold and warm upper oceans. As global warming impacts upper ocean temperatures, we project that break points of beta diversity move markedly pole-wards. Hence, abrupt regime shifts in algal microbiomes could be caused by anthropogenic climate change.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding Information: We would like to thank Captains Schwarze and Wunderlich and the RV ‘Polarstern’ crews of the ARK27-1, ANT29-1 and PS103 expeditions for their vital help during sampling. The Southern Ocean sampling was performed as part of project AWI_PS103_04. The work conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, a DOE Office of Science User Facility, is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract no. DE-AC02-05CH11231. R.M.L. acknowledges funding from BBSRC Core Strategic Programme Grant BB/CSP1720/1. T.M. acknowledges funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute (Grant 532, Community Science Program) and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) (Grants NE/ K004530/1; NE/R000883/1). The PhD studentship of K.M. was funded by the University of East Anglia (UEA) and the Earlham Institute. The PhD studentship of K.S. was funded by the School of Environmental Sciences at UEA.
Uncontrolled Keywords: chemistry(all),biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology(all),physics and astronomy(all),sdg 13 - climate action ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1600
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Science
Faculty of Science > School of Environmental Sciences
Faculty of Science > School of Computing Sciences
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 22 Sep 2021 02:02
Last Modified: 23 Oct 2021 00:41
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/81477
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-25646-9

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