Adaptation and testing of a microscale audit tool to assess liveability using Google Street View: MAPS-Liveability

Cleland, Claire L., Ferguson, Sara, Kee, Frank, Kelly, Paul, Williams, Andrew James, Nightingale, Glenna, Cope, Andy, Foster, Charlie, Milton, Karen ORCID:, Kelly, Michael P., Jepson, Ruth and Hunter, Ruth F. (2021) Adaptation and testing of a microscale audit tool to assess liveability using Google Street View: MAPS-Liveability. Journal of Transport and Health, 22. ISSN 2214-1413

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Background: Liveability is a complex, multifaceted concept with various definitions, but with an agreed core set of features (e.g., safety, walkability). Typically, liveability is measured at the macro-level (city or regional-level), and has been used in advocacy by local populations. However, micro-level (street-level) liveability measurements could also/alternatively be used to identify modifiable environmental features impacting health and well-being. To date, no micro-level liveability tools exist. This study investigates the reliability and rater agreement of a new micro-level audit tool designed for use with Google Street View (GSV). Methods: MAPS-Liveability (GSV), was adapted from the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS). This study had two phases: 1) MAPS-Liveability development (rapid literature review identifying core liveability concepts, focus groups confirming liveability concepts and tool adaptation); 2) reliability investigation (researcher agreement). Assessment was made of: total liveability; nine liveability sub-characteristics (e.g., safety, health); and 12 proxy measures of behaviour including active travel (e.g., bicycle racks, presence of bicycles in racks). Inter-rater reliability and sensitivity to change were assessed by percentage agreement, inter-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Wilcoxon signed-ranked tests (p < 0.05). Results: Inter-rater reliability was excellent (ICC 0.905–0.968) for total liveability, parked cars and total number of cars (moving/parked); good (ICC 0.754–0.885) for health, sustainability, places, number of bicycle racks, bicycle rack capacity, number of bicycles in the racks (time-point 2), cyclists (time-point 2), moving cars (time-point 2) and pedestrians; and moderate (ICC 0.550–0.742) for safety, inclusivity, education, traffic/transport, pavements, roads, cyclists (time-point 1), number of bicycles in the racks (time-point 1) and moving cars (time-point 1). Conclusion: MAPS-Liveability provides a reliable assessment of micro-level liveability features. MAPS-Liveability has excellent inter-rater reliability for total liveability and moderate-excellent inter-rater reliability for liveability attributes and behavioural indicators. GSV at street-level supports safe, large-scale objective data collection, and collection of historical data where primary data is unavailable.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: google street view,liveability,maps,reliability,sensitivity to change,street audit,safety, risk, reliability and quality,transportation,pollution,safety research,health policy,public health, environmental and occupational health,sdg 3 - good health and well-being ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2200/2213
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
UEA Research Groups: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Research Centres > Lifespan Health
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Research Centres > Population Health
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 03 Aug 2021 00:03
Last Modified: 03 Jan 2024 02:46
DOI: 10.1016/j.jth.2021.101226


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