Impact of pharmacist and physician collaborations in primary care on reducing readmission to hospital: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Foot, Holly, Scott, Ian, Sturman, Nancy, Whitty, Jennifer A. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5886-1933, Rixon, Kylie, Connelly, Luke, Williams, Ian and Freeman, Christopher (2022) Impact of pharmacist and physician collaborations in primary care on reducing readmission to hospital: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 18 (6). pp. 2922-2943. ISSN 1551-7411

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Abstract

Background: Readmissions to hospital due to medication-related problems are common and may be preventable. Pharmacists act to optimise use of medicines during care transitions from hospital to community.  Objective: To assess the impact of pharmacist-led interventions, which include communication with a primary care physician (PCP) on reducing hospital readmissions.  Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL and Web of Science were searched for articles published from inception to March 2021 that described interventions involving a pharmacist interacting with a PCP in regards to medication management of patients recently discharged from hospital. The primary outcome was effect on all-cause readmission expressed as Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio (RR) derived from applying a random effects model to pooled data. Sensitivity analysis was also conducted to investigate differences between randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs. The GRADE system was applied in rating the quality of evidence and certainty in the estimates of effect.  Results: In total, 37 studies were included (16 RCTs and 29 non-RCTs). Compared to control patients, the proportion of intervention patients readmitted at least once was significantly reduced by 13% (RR = 0.87, CI:0.79–0.97, p = 0.01; low to very low certainty of evidence) over follow-up periods of variable duration in all studies combined, and by 22% (RR = 0.78, CI:0.67–0.92; low certainty of evidence) at 30 day follow-up across studies reporting this time point. Analysis of data from RCTs only showed no significant reduction in readmissions (RR = 0.92, CI:0.80–1.06; low certainty of evidence).  Conclusions: The totality of evidence suggests pharmacist-led interventions with PCP communication are effective in reducing readmissions, especially at 30 days follow-up. Future studies need to adopt more rigorous study designs and apply well-defined patient eligibility criteria.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding: This paper presents independent research funded by the HCF Research Foundation, Brisbane North PHN and Brisbane South PHN.
Uncontrolled Keywords: medication safety,pharmacy: quality use of medicines,meta analysis,primary care,readmission,pharmacy,pharmaceutical science ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/3600/3611
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 22 Jul 2021 00:07
Last Modified: 23 Oct 2022 02:44
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/80691
DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2021.07.015

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