Assessing the policy effects of political leaders: a layered framework

James, Toby S. ORCID: (2021) Assessing the policy effects of political leaders: a layered framework. Policy Studies, 42 (5-6). pp. 437-454. ISSN 0144-2872

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How should political leaders be evaluated? This article reviews existing approaches and argues that they are insufficiently developed to map the more complex policy effects of political leaders, since they tend to focus on electoral and broader regime level outcomes. In response, it maps out a layered framework based on scientific realism. The layered approach argues that analysis should focus on the effects of leaders within societal structures, formal political institutions, the framing of policy problems as well as policy. The approach requires that we are sensitive to the structure and agency relationships between layers when identifying where leaders brought about policy and political change, as well as the effects on the international system and on other polities. It is proposed that the new approach will help to develop a more complete and nuanced understanding of the policy effects of leaders that will uncover their effects in hidden spaces as well as broader societal shifts.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Issue on: The Trump Administration
Uncontrolled Keywords: donald trump,political leaders,trumpism,policy process,presidents,political science and international relations ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/3300/3320
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Arts and Humanities > School of Politics, Philosophy, Language and Communication Studies
UEA Research Groups: Faculty of Arts and Humanities > Research Groups > Political, Social and International Studies
Faculty of Arts and Humanities > Research Groups > Policy & Politics
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 01 Jul 2021 00:17
Last Modified: 21 Jul 2023 09:57
DOI: 10.1080/01442872.2021.1949090


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