Psychological peritraumatic risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review

Memarzia, Jessica, Walker, Jack and Meiser-Stedman, Richard (2021) Psychological peritraumatic risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 282. pp. 1036-1047. ISSN 0165-0327

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Abstract

Background Meta-analytic reviews concerning predictors of PTSD in children and adolescents have predominantly identified evidence relating to pre- and post-trauma risk factors; however, there is little evidence regarding peritraumatic risk factors. This paper comprised a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies exploring psychological peritraumatic risk factors for PTSD in youth. Methods Thirty-two studies were identified. Random effects meta-analyses were undertaken, with meta-regressions to explore the moderating role of study characteristics (gender, sex, timing of assessment after trauma, study quality, design and trauma type) on the size of effect of predictive factors. Results Peritraumatic subjective threat (k = 28; r = 0.37, 95% CI=0.31–0.42) yielded a medium effect size estimate, while dissociation (k = 5; r = 0.17, 95% CI=0.03–0.29) and data-driven processing (feeling muddled or confused during the trauma) (k = 2; r = 0.29, 95% CI=0.14–0.43) yielded smaller population effect size estimates for the relationship with PTSD symptoms. Perceived life threat yielded a medium sized effect (k = 12; r = 0.37, 95% CI=0.32–0.41). The relationship between subjective threat and PTSD symptoms was moderated by the percentage of female participants. Estimates of heterogeneity were high in studies assessing perceived threat and fear (I2 = 95%), but moderate and low within studies assessing dissociation and data-driven processing (I2 = 57% and 0%, respectively). Limitations Peritraumatic psychological processes were commonly assessed using single-item measures. Studies primarily concerned single-incident traumas, limiting generalisability. Conclusions Peritraumatic experiences, particularly relating to subjective threat, are important correlates of subsequent PTSD, which implicates timely assessment of these experiences in youth to inform identification of at-risk groups and implementation and design of intervention.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: adolescents,children,meta-analysis,ptsd,peritraumatic,risk factors,clinical psychology,psychiatry and mental health,sdg 3 - good health and well-being ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/3200/3203
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 09 Jan 2021 01:22
Last Modified: 30 Sep 2021 16:01
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/78127
DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2021.01.016

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