Regulation of Enteroendocrine Cell Networks by the Major Human Gut Symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron

Modasia, Amisha, Parker, Aimee, Jones, Emily, Stentz, Regis, Brion, Arlaine, Goldson, Andrew, Defernez, Marianne, Wileman, Tom, Blackshaw, L. Ashley and Carding, Simon R. (2020) Regulation of Enteroendocrine Cell Networks by the Major Human Gut Symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Frontiers in Microbiology, 11. ISSN 1664-302X

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Abstract

Gut microbes have critical roles in maintaining host physiology, but their effects on epithelial chemosensory enteroendocrine cells (EEC) remain unclear. We investigated the role that the ubiquitous commensal gut bacterium Bacteriodes thetaiotaomicron (Bt) and its major fermentation products, acetate, propionate, and succinate (APS) have in shaping EEC networks in the murine gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The distribution and numbers of EEC populations were assessed in tissues along the GIT by fluorescent immunohistochemistry in specific pathogen free (SPF), germfree (GF) mice, GF mice conventionalized by Bt or Lactobacillus reuteri (Lr), and GF mice administered APS. In parallel, we also assessed the suitability of using intestinal crypt-derived epithelial monolayer cultures for these studies. GF mice up-regulated their EEC network, in terms of a general EEC marker chromogranin A (ChrA) expression, numbers of serotonin-producing enterochromaffin cells, and both hormone-producing K- and L-cells, with a corresponding increase in serum glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. Bt conventionalization restored EEC numbers to levels in SPF mice with regional specificity; the effects on ChrA and L-cells were mainly in the small intestine, the effects on K-cells and EC cells were most apparent in the colon. By contrast, Lr did not restore EEC networks in conventionalized GF mice. Analysis of secretory epithelial cell monolayer cultures from whole small intestine showed that intestinal monolayers are variable and with the possible exclusion of GIP expressing cells, did not accurately reflect the EEC cell makeup seen in vivo. Regarding the mechanism of action of Bt on EECs, colonization of GF mice with Bt led to the production and accumulation of acetate, propionate and succinate (APS) in the caecum and colon, which when administered at physiological concentrations to GF mice via their drinking water for 10 days mimicked to a large extent the effects of Bt in GF mice. After withdrawal of APS, the changes in some EEC were maintained and, in some cases, were greater than during APS treatment. This data provides evidence of microbiota influences on regulating EEC networks in different regions of the GIT, with a single microbe, Bt, recapitulating its role in a process that may be dependent upon its fermentation products.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: bacteroides thetaiotaomicron,enteroendocrine cells,germfree mice,intestinal microbiota,short chain fatty acids,microbiology,microbiology (medical) ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2400/2404
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
Faculty of Science > School of Biological Sciences
Faculty of Science > School of Chemistry
Related URLs:
Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 28 Nov 2020 00:50
Last Modified: 13 May 2021 15:51
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/77828
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.575595

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