The spotted gar genome illuminates vertebrate evolution and facilitates human-teleost comparisons

Braasch, Ingo, Gehrke, Andrew R, Smith, Jeramiah J, Kawasaki, Kazuhiko, Manousaki, Tereza, Pasquier, Jeremy, Amores, Angel, Desvignes, Thomas, Batzel, Peter, Catchen, Julian, Berlin, Aaron M, Campbell, Michael S, Barrell, Daniel, Martin, Kyle J, Mulley, John F, Ravi, Vydianathan, Lee, Alison P, Nakamura, Tetsuya, Chalopin, Domitille, Fan, Shaohua, Wcisel, Dustin, Cañestro, Cristian, Sydes, Jason, Beaudry, Felix E G, Sun, Yi, Hertel, Jana, Beam, Michael J, Fasold, Mario, Ishiyama, Mikio, Johnson, Jeremy, Kehr, Steffi, Lara, Marcia, Letaw, John H, Litman, Gary W, Litman, Ronda T, Mikami, Masato, Ota, Tatsuya, Saha, Nil Ratan, Williams, Louise, Stadler, Peter F, Wang, Han, Taylor, John S, Fontenot, Quenton, Ferrara, Allyse, Searle, Stephen M J, Aken, Bronwen, Yandell, Mark, Schneider, Igor, Yoder, Jeffrey A, Volff, Jean-Nicolas, Meyer, Axel, Amemiya, Chris T, Venkatesh, Byrappa, Holland, Peter W H, Guiguen, Yann, Bobe, Julien, Shubin, Neil H, Di Palma, Federica, Alföldi, Jessica, Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin and Postlethwait, John H (2016) The spotted gar genome illuminates vertebrate evolution and facilitates human-teleost comparisons. Nature Genetics, 48 (4). pp. 427-437. ISSN 1061-4036

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To connect human biology to fish biomedical models, we sequenced the genome of spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), whose lineage diverged from teleosts before teleost genome duplication (TGD). The slowly evolving gar genome has conserved in content and size many entire chromosomes from bony vertebrate ancestors. Gar bridges teleosts to tetrapods by illuminating the evolution of immunity, mineralization and development (mediated, for example, by Hox, ParaHox and microRNA genes). Numerous conserved noncoding elements (CNEs; often cis regulatory) undetectable in direct human-teleost comparisons become apparent using gar: functional studies uncovered conserved roles for such cryptic CNEs, facilitating annotation of sequences identified in human genome-wide association studies. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the sums of expression domains and expression levels for duplicated teleost genes often approximate the patterns and levels of expression for gar genes, consistent with subfunctionalization. The gar genome provides a resource for understanding evolution after genome duplication, the origin of vertebrate genomes and the function of human regulatory sequences.

Item Type: Article
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
Faculty of Science > School of Biological Sciences
UEA Research Groups: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Research Centres > Norwich Institute for Healthy Aging
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 10 Oct 2020 00:01
Last Modified: 20 Apr 2023 18:34
DOI: 10.1038/ng.3526


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