Long-term effects of increasing omega-3, omega-6 and total polyunsaturated fats on inflammatory bowel disease and markers of inflammation: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Ajabnoor, Sarah M., Thorpe, Gabrielle, Abdelhamid, Asmaa and Hooper, Lee (2020) Long-term effects of increasing omega-3, omega-6 and total polyunsaturated fats on inflammatory bowel disease and markers of inflammation: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. European Journal of Nutrition. ISSN 1436-6207

[img] PDF (Accepted_Manuscript) - Submitted Version
Restricted to Repository staff only until 21 October 2021.

Download (470kB) | Request a copy
[img] PDF (Revised_Figures_9Sept2020) - Submitted Version
Restricted to Repository staff only until 21 October 2021.

Download (393kB) | Request a copy
[img] PDF (Revised_Additional_Materials_Revised_9Sep2020) - Submitted Version
Restricted to Repository staff only until 21 October 2021.

Download (1MB) | Request a copy

Abstract

Background & Aims: Effects of long-chain omega-3 (LCn3) and omega-6 fatty acids on prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, including Crohn’s Disease, CD and ulcerative colitis, UC), and inflammation are unclear. We systematically reviewed long-term effects of omega-3, omega-6 and total polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) on IBD diagnosis, relapse, severity, pharmacotherapy, quality of life and key inflammatory markers.  Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, and trials registries, including RCTs in adults with or without IBD comparing higher with lower omega-3, omega-6 and/or total PUFA intake for ≥24 weeks that assessed IBD-specific outcomes or inflammatory biomarkers.  Results: We included 83 RCTs (41,751 participants), of which 13 recruited participants with IBD. Increasing LCn3 may reduce risk of IBD relapse (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.01) and IBD worsening (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.03), and reduce erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, SMD -0.23, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.01), but may increase IBD diagnosis risk (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.92), and faecal calprotectin, a specific inflammatory marker for IBD (MD 16.1μg/g, 95% CI -37.6 to 69.8, all low-quality evidence). Outcomes for alpha-linolenic acid, omega-6 and total PUFA were sparse, but suggested little or no effect where data were available.  Conclusion: This is the most comprehensive meta-analysis of RCTs investigating long-term effects of omega-3, omega-6 and total PUFA on IBD and inflammatory markers. Our findings suggest that supplementation with PUFAs has little or no effect on prevention or treatment of IBD and provides little support for modification of long-term inflammatory status.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: inflammatory bowel diseases,dietary fats, unsaturated,fatty acids, omega-3,fatty acids, omega-6,alpha-linolenic acid,meta-analysis
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Health Sciences
Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 07 Oct 2020 23:59
Last Modified: 21 Oct 2020 23:55
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/77167
DOI: 10.1007/s00394-020-02413-y

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item