Omega-3, omega-6 and total dietary polyunsaturated fat on cancer incidence: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials

Hanson, Sarah, Thorpe, Gabrielle, Winstanley, Lauren, Abdelhamid, Asmaa and Hooper, Lee (2020) Omega-3, omega-6 and total dietary polyunsaturated fat on cancer incidence: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. British Journal of Cancer. ISSN 0007-0920

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Abstract

Background The relationship between long-chain omega-3 (LCn3), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), omega-6 and total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intakes and cancer risk is unclear. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, CENTRAL and trials registries for RCTs comparing higher with lower LCn3, ALA, omega-6 and/or total PUFA, that assessed cancers over ≥12 months. Random-effects meta-analyses, sensitivity analyses, subgrouping, risk of bias and GRADE were used. Results We included 47 RCTs (108,194 participants). Increasing LCn3 has little or no effect on cancer diagnosis (RR1.02, 95% CI 0.98-1.07), cancer death (RR0.97, 95% CI 0.90-1.06) or breast cancer diagnosis (RR1.03, 95% CI 0.89-1.20); increasing ALA has little or no effect on cancer death (all high/moderate-quality evidence). Increasing LCn3 (NNTH 334, RR1.10, 95% CI 0.97-1.24) and ALA (NNTH 334, RR1.30, 95% CI 0.72-2.32) may slightly increase prostate cancer risk; increasing total PUFA may slightly increase risk of cancer diagnosis (NNTH 125, RR1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.42) and cancer death (NNTH 500, RR1.10, 95% CI 0.48-2.49) but total PUFA doses were very high in some trials. Conclusions The most extensive systematic review to assess effects of increasing PUFAs on cancer risk found increasing total PUFA may very slightly increase cancer risk, offset by small protective effects on cardiovascular diseases.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: fatty acids, omega-3,fatty acids, omega-6,cancer,breast cancer,prostate cancer,meta-analysis,fatty acids, unsaturated,randomised controlled trial,supplements,acids,bias,omega-3-fatty-acids,prevention,risk,breast-cancer,interventions,empirical-evidence,outcomes,oncology,cancer research ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2700/2730
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Health Sciences
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 28 Jan 2020 03:53
Last Modified: 02 Apr 2020 00:44
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/73820
DOI: 10.1038/s41416-020-0761-6

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