Direct and embodied energy-water-carbon nexus at an inter-regional scale

Chen, Shaoqing, Tan, Yiqi and Liu, Zhu (2019) Direct and embodied energy-water-carbon nexus at an inter-regional scale. Applied Energy, 251. ISSN 0306-2619

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Energy, water and carbon flows are highly intertwined in economy and influence urban and regional sustainability. Few insights have been acquired for energy-water-carbon nexus at inter-regional scale considering both in- and trans-boundary flows. Here we propose an interactive framework to assess inter-regional energy-water-carbon nexus, encapsulating both direct nexus flows within territory and nexus flows embodied in final consumption. An inter-regional input-output model is established to account for energy-related water footprint, water-related energy footprint and water-related carbon footprint from a consumption-based perspective. Using Guangdong-Hong Kong as a case study, we find that though these nexus footprints contribute a small fraction of the total energy, water and carbon footprints of both regions in 2012, their impacts should not be neglected due to higher intensities. The direct intensities of water-related energy and water-related carbon are more than 2 times higher than the total energy and carbon intensities, while their embodied intensities are over 6 times higher. Inter-regional trade plays an important role in controlling energy-water-carbon nexus of both sides. About 29–44% of the consumption-based nexus footprints of Hong Kong's consumption are outsourced to Guangdong and other regions, while 21–24% of Guangdong's footprints are from production elsewhere. These are strong signals showing the importance of managing energy-water-carbon nexus on a cross-border and fully-interactive basis.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Corrigendum at: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.114428
Uncontrolled Keywords: energy-water-carbon nexus,footprint intensity,inter-regional input-output model,nexus flows,building and construction,energy(all),mechanical engineering,management, monitoring, policy and law ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2200/2215
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Social Sciences > School of Global Development (formerly School of International Development)
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 24 Sep 2019 10:30
Last Modified: 22 Oct 2022 04:59
DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.113401

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