Quantile regression analysis reveals widespread evidence for gene-environment or gene-gene interactions in myopia development

Pozarickij, Alfred, Williams, Cathy, Hysi, Pirro G., Guggenheim, Jeremy A., Aslam, Tariq, Barman, Sarah A., Barrett, Jenny H., Bishop, Paul, Blows, Peter, Bunce, Catey, Carare, Roxana O., Chakravarthy, Usha, Chan, Michelle, Chua, Sharon Y.L., Crabb, David P., Cumberland, Philippa M., Day, Alexander, Desai, Parul, Dhillon, Bal, Dick, Andrew D., Egan, Cathy, Ennis, Sarah, Foster, Paul, Fruttiger, Marcus, Gallacher, John E.J., Garway-Heath, David F., Gibson, Jane, Gore, Dan, Hammond, Chris J., Hardcastle, Alison, Harding, Simon P., Hogg, Ruth E., Keane, Pearse A., Khaw, Sir Peng T., Khawaja, Anthony P., Lascaratos, Gerassimos, Lotery, Andrew J., Mac Gillivray, Tom, Mackie, Sarah, Martin, Keith, McGaughey, Michelle, McGuinness, Bernadette, McKay, Gareth J., McKibbin, Martin, Mitry, Danny, Moore, Tony, Morgan, James E., Muthy, Zaynah A., O’Sullivan, Eoin and Yates, Max M. (2019) Quantile regression analysis reveals widespread evidence for gene-environment or gene-gene interactions in myopia development. Communications Biology, 2 (1). ISSN 2399-3642

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Abstract

A genetic contribution to refractive error has been confirmed by the discovery of more than 150 associated variants in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Environmental factors such as education and time outdoors also demonstrate strong associations. Currently however, the extent of gene-environment or gene-gene interactions in myopia is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that refractive error-associated variants exhibit effect size heterogeneity, a hallmark feature of genetic interactions. Of 146 variants tested, evidence of non-uniform, non-linear effects were observed for 66 (45%) at Bonferroni-corrected significance (P < 1.1 × 10−4) and 128 (88%) at nominal significance (P < 0.05). LAMA2 variant rs12193446, for example, had an effect size varying from −0.20 diopters (95% CI −0.18 to −0.23) to −0.89 diopters (95% CI −0.71 to −1.07) in different individuals. SNP effects were strongest at the phenotype extremes and weaker in emmetropes. A parsimonious explanation for these findings is that gene-environment or gene-gene interactions in myopia are pervasive.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology(all),agricultural and biological sciences(all),medicine (miscellaneous) ,/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1300
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 12 Sep 2019 14:34
Last Modified: 22 Apr 2020 08:10
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/72144
DOI: 10.1038/s42003-019-0387-5

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