Primula vulgaris (primrose) genome assembly, annotation and gene expression, with comparative genomics on the heterostyly supergene

Cocker, Jonathan M., Wright, Jonathan, Li, Jinhong, Swarbreck, David, Dyer, Sarah, Caccamo, Mario and Gilmartin, Philip M. (2018) Primula vulgaris (primrose) genome assembly, annotation and gene expression, with comparative genomics on the heterostyly supergene. Scientific Reports, 8. ISSN 2045-2322

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Abstract

Primula vulgaris (primrose) exhibits heterostyly: plants produce self-incompatible pin- or thrum-form flowers, with anthers and stigma at reciprocal heights. Darwin concluded that this arrangement promotes insect-mediated cross-pollination; later studies revealed control by a cluster of genes, or supergene, known as the S (Style length) locus. The P. vulgaris S locus is absent from pin plants and hemizygous in thrum plants (thrum-specific); mutation of S locus genes produces self-fertile homostyle flowers with anthers and stigma at equal heights. Here, we present a 411 Mb P. vulgaris genome assembly of a homozygous inbred long homostyle, representing ~87% of the genome. We annotate over 24,000 P. vulgaris genes, and reveal more genes up-regulated in thrum than pin flowers. We show reduced genomic read coverage across the S locus in other Primula species, including P. veris, where we define the conserved structure and expression of the S locus genes in thrum. Further analysis reveals the S locus has elevated repeat content (64%) compared to the wider genome (37%). Our studies suggest conservation of S locus genetic architecture in Primula, and provide a platform for identification and evolutionary analysis of the S locus and downstream targets that regulate heterostyly in diverse heterostylous species.

Item Type: Article
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Science > School of Biological Sciences
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Depositing User: LivePure Connector
Date Deposited: 10 Jan 2019 15:30
Last Modified: 18 Mar 2020 02:27
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/69540
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-36304-4

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