High levels of cyclic-di-GMP in plant-associated Pseudomonas correlate with evasion of plant immunity

Pfeilmeier, Sebastian, Saur, Isabel Marie-Luise, Rathjen, John Paul, Zipfel, Cyril and Malone, Jacob George ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1959-6820 (2016) High levels of cyclic-di-GMP in plant-associated Pseudomonas correlate with evasion of plant immunity. Molecular Plant Pathology, 17 (4). pp. 521-531. ISSN 1464-6722

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The plant innate immune system employs plasma membrane-localized receptors that specifically perceive pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs). This induces a defence response called pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) to fend off pathogen attack. Commensal bacteria are also exposed to potential immune recognition and must employ strategies to evade and/or suppress PTI to successfully colonize the plant. During plant infection, the flagellum has an ambiguous role, acting as both a virulence factor and also as a potent immunogen as a result of the recognition of its main building block, flagellin, by the plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2). Therefore, strict control of flagella synthesis is especially important for plant-associated bacteria. Here, we show that cyclic-di-GMP [bis-(3'-5')-cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate], a central regulator of bacterial lifestyle, is involved in the evasion of PTI. Elevated cyclic-di-GMP levels in the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000, the opportunist P. aeruginosa PAO1 and the commensal P. protegens Pf-5 inhibit flagellin synthesis and help the bacteria to evade FLS2-mediated signalling in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana. Despite this, high cellular cyclic-di-GMP concentrations were shown to drastically reduce the virulence of Pto DC3000 during plant infection. We propose that this is a result of reduced flagellar motility and/or additional pleiotropic effects of cyclic-di-GMP signalling on bacterial behaviour.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Uncontrolled Keywords: cyclic-di-gmp,flagellin,immune evasion,pseudomonas,pti
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Science > School of Biological Sciences
UEA Research Groups: Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Plant Sciences
Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Molecular Microbiology
Depositing User: Pure Connector
Date Deposited: 22 Apr 2016 08:33
Last Modified: 05 Apr 2023 23:43
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/58334
DOI: 10.1111/mpp.12297

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