Socioeconomic predictors and consequences of depression among primary care attenders with non-communicable diseases in the Western Cape, South Africa:Cohort study within a randomised trial

Folb, Naomi, Lund, Crick, Fairall, Lara R., Timmerman, Venessa, Levitt, Naomi S., Steyn, Krisela and Bachmann, Max Oscar ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1770-3506 (2015) Socioeconomic predictors and consequences of depression among primary care attenders with non-communicable diseases in the Western Cape, South Africa:Cohort study within a randomised trial. BMC Public Health, 15. ISSN 1471-2458

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Abstract

Background: Socioeconomic predictors and consequences of depression and its treatment were investigated in 4393 adults with specified non-communicable diseases attending 38 public sector primary care clinics in the Eden and Overberg districts of the Western Cape, South Africa.   Methods: Participants were interviewed at baseline in 2011 and 14 months later, as part of a randomised controlled trial of a guideline-based intervention to improve diagnosis and management of chronic diseases. The 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) was used to assess depression symptoms, with higher scores representing more depressed mood. Results: Higher CESD-10 scores at baseline were independently associated with being less educated (p=0.004) and having lower income (p=0.003). CESD-10 scores at follow-up were higher in participants with less education (p=0.010) or receiving welfare grants (p=0.007) independent of their baseline scores. Participants with CESD-10 scores of 10 or more at baseline (56% of all participants) had 25% higher odds of being unemployed at follow-up (p=0.016), independently of baseline CESD-10 score and treatment status. Among participants with baseline CESD-10 scores of 10 or more, antidepressant medication at baseline was independently more likely in participants who had more education (p=0.002), higher income (p<0.001), or were unemployed (p=0.001). Antidepressant medication at follow up was independently more likely in participants with higher income (p=0.023), and in clinics with better access to pharmacists (p=0.053) and off-site drug delivery (p=0.013).  Conclusions: Socioeconomic disadvantage appears to be both a cause and consequence of depression, and may also be a barrier to treatment. There are opportunities for improving the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of depression in primary care in inequitable middle income countries like South Africa.  Trial registration: The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials (ISRCTN20283604) and the Office for Human Research Protections Database (IRB00001938, FWA00001637).

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2015 Folb et al. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Uncontrolled Keywords: sdg 3 - good health and well-being ,/dk/atira/pure/sustainabledevelopmentgoals/good_health_and_well_being
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
Depositing User: Pure Connector
Date Deposited: 02 Dec 2015 10:00
Last Modified: 22 Oct 2022 00:27
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/55604
DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2509-4

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