Vegetarian diet, Seventh Day Adventists and risk of cardiovascular mortality:A systematic review and meta-analysis

Kwok, Chun Sing, Umar, Saadia, Myint, Phyo K., Mamas, Mamas A. and Loke, Yoon K. (2014) Vegetarian diet, Seventh Day Adventists and risk of cardiovascular mortality:A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Cardiology, 176 (3). 680–686. ISSN 0167-5273

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Abstract

Background: Dietary interventions are an important component of cardiovascular risk factor management although their impact on cardiovascular risk and mortality remains uncertain. We have studied influence of a vegetarian diet on cardiovascular risk and mortality. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for comparative studies that evaluated clinical outcomes associated with vegetarian diet as compared to non-vegetarian controls or the general population. Relevant studies were pooled using random effects meta-analysis for risk of death, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease. We conducted subgroup analysis according to specific type of cohort (e.g. Seventh Day Adventist [SDA]) and gender. Results: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria with 183,321 participants (n = 183,321). There was significant heterogeneity in all the meta-analyses, particularly evident with the studies of SDA. In all instances, we found that SDA studies showed greater effect size as compared to non-SDA studies: death (RR 0.68 95% CI 0.45-1.02 vs RR 1.04 95% CI 0.98-1.10), ischaemic heart disease (IHD) (RR 0.60 95% CI 0.43-0.80 vs RR 0.84 95% CI 0.74-0.96) and cerebrovascular disease (RR 0.71 95% CI 0.41-1.20 vs RR 1.05 95% CI 0.89-1.24). Sex specific analyses showed that IHD was significantly reduced in both genders but risk of death and cerebrovascular disease was only significantly reduced in men. Conclusions: Data from observational studies indicates that there is modest cardiovascular benefit, but no clear reduction in overall mortality associated with a vegetarian diet. This evidence of benefit is driven mainly by studies in SDA, whereas the effect of vegetarian diet in other cohorts remains unproven.

Item Type: Article
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Pure Connector
Date Deposited: 09 Oct 2014 09:36
Last Modified: 21 Apr 2020 23:29
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/50485
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.07.080

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