Epithelial cell shedding and barrier function: a matter of life and death at the small intestinal villus tip

Williams, J. M., Duckworth, C. A., Burkitt, M. D., Watson, A. J. M., Campbell, B. J. and Pritchard, D. M. (2015) Epithelial cell shedding and barrier function: a matter of life and death at the small intestinal villus tip. Veterinary Pathology, 52 (3). pp. 445-455. ISSN 1544-2217

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Abstract

The intestinal epithelium is a critical component of the gut barrier. Composed of a single layer of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) held together by tight junctions, this delicate structure prevents the transfer of harmful microorganisms, antigens, and toxins from the gut lumen into the circulation. The equilibrium between the rate of apoptosis and shedding of senescent epithelial cells at the villus tip, and the generation of new cells in the crypt, is key to maintaining tissue homeostasis. However, in both localized and systemic inflammation, this balance may be disturbed as a result of pathological IEC shedding. Shedding of IECs from the epithelial monolayer may cause transient gaps or microerosions in the epithelial barrier, resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Although pathological IEC shedding has been observed in mouse models of inflammation and human intestinal conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. This process may also be an important contributor to systemic and intestinal inflammatory diseases and gut barrier dysfunction in domestic animal species. This review aims to summarize current knowledge about intestinal epithelial cell shedding, its significance in gut barrier dysfunction and host-microbial interactions, and where research in this field is directed.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page (http://www.uk.sagepub.com/aboutus/openaccess.htm).
Uncontrolled Keywords: genetically engineered mice,digestive tract,bacterial,immunologic,inflammation,nutritional,immunohistochemistry,imaging
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
Depositing User: Pure Connector
Date Deposited: 23 Sep 2014 14:18
Last Modified: 21 Jul 2020 23:59
URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/50201
DOI: 10.1177/0300985814559404

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