Carcinogenic potential of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Xiamen metropolis, China

Cai, Chao, Zhang, Youchi, Reid, Brian J. ORCID: and Nunes, Luis M. (2012) Carcinogenic potential of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Xiamen metropolis, China. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 14 (12). pp. 3111-3117. ISSN 1464-0325

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Xiamen is one of China's most rapidly developing metropolises. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to establish the levels and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil across the Xiamen metropolis, (2) to evaluate the extent to which PAH concentrations were elevated in the high urbanization area (HUA) of the island and how these compared with those in the low urbanization area (LUA) of the mainland, and (3) to evaluate the PAH hazard based upon their Carcinogenic Potential (CP), defined as toxicity equivalence of ?PAHs. Twenty two alternative relative carcinogenic potency schemes were used and compared. Results demonstrated PAH concentrations to be greatly elevated across the entire metropolis. Significantly, the most enriched compounds represented the greatest concern with respect to carcinogenicity. The CP of more than 25% of the industrial samples from the island surpassed the Canadian guidance threshold value (600 µg kg) for an excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) of 1 in 10 . While soil samples from the remaining land uses on the island were all below this threshold, PAH levels in soil were nonetheless elevated (enrichment factors of between 4.1 ± 1.9 and 16.3 ± 12.4 in the HUA, and between 1.3 ± 0.7 and 10.8 ± 4.4 in the LUA). Results relating to agricultural locations on the island indicated 75% of the samples in HUA and 28% of the samples in LUA to be above the USEPA guidance value for BaP (15 µg kg). Given the exceptionally high population density on the island there is a need for further research to evaluate multiple pathway PAH exposure risks.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: sdg 3 - good health and well-being,sdg 11 - sustainable cities and communities,sdg 15 - life on land ,/dk/atira/pure/sustainabledevelopmentgoals/good_health_and_well_being
Faculty \ School: Faculty of Science > School of Environmental Sciences
UEA Research Groups: Faculty of Science > Research Centres > Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation
Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Geosciences
Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Environmental Biology
Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Resources, Sustainability and Governance (former - to 2018)
Faculty of Science > Research Groups > Geosciences and Natural Hazards (former - to 2017)
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Depositing User: Pure Connector
Date Deposited: 27 Oct 2013 21:52
Last Modified: 24 Oct 2022 04:54
DOI: 10.1039/c2em30554b

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