Development of an International Odor Identification Test for Children: The Universal Sniff Test

Schriever, Valentin A., Agosin, Eduardo, Altundag, Aytug, Avni, Hadas, Cao Van, Helene, Cornejo, Carlos, de los Santos, Gonzalo, Fishman, Gad, Fragola, Claudio, Guarneros, Marco, Gupta, Neelima, Hudson, Robyn, Kamel, Reda, Knaapila, Antti, Konstantinidis, Iordanis, Landis, Basile N., Larsson, Maria, Lundström, Johan N., Macchi, Alberto, Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin, Martinec Nováková, Lenka, Mori, Eri, Mullol, Joaquim, Nord, Marie, Parma, Valentina, Philpott, Carl, Propst, Evan J., Rawan, Ahmed, Sandell, Mari, Sorokowska, Agnieszka, Sorokowski, Piotr, Sparing-Paschke, Lisa-Marie, Stetzler, Carolin, Valder, Claudia, Vodicka, Jan and Hummel, Thomas (2018) Development of an International Odor Identification Test for Children: The Universal Sniff Test. Journal of Pediatrics. ISSN 0022-3476

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    Abstract

    Objective: To assess olfactory function in children and to create and validate an odor identification test to diagnose olfactory dysfunction in children, which we called the Universal Sniff (U-Sniff) test. Study design: This is a multicenter study involving 19 countries. The U-Sniff test was developed in 3 phases including 1760 children age 5-7 years. Phase 1: identification of potentially recognizable odors; phase 2: selection of odorants for the odor identification test; and phase 3: evaluation of the test and acquisition of normative data. Test—retest reliability was evaluated in a subgroup of children (n = 27), and the test was validated using children with congenital anosmia (n = 14). Results: Twelve odors were familiar to children and, therefore, included in the U-Sniff test. Children scored a mean ± SD of 9.88 ± 1.80 points out of 12. Normative data was obtained and reported for each country. The U-Sniff test demonstrated a high test—retest reliability (r27 = 0.83, P < .001) and enabled discrimination between normosmia and children with congenital anosmia with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 86%. Conclusions: The U-Sniff is a valid and reliable method of testing olfaction in children and can be used internationally.

    Item Type: Article
    Uncontrolled Keywords: olfaction,children,smell testing,sniffin' sticks,olfactory dysfunction
    Faculty \ School: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Norwich Medical School
    University of East Anglia > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Research Groups > Clinical Science and Trials
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    Depositing User: Pure Connector
    Date Deposited: 13 Mar 2018 17:36
    Last Modified: 09 May 2018 23:30
    URI: https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/66484
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.03.011

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