Studies of copper trafficking proteins from Bacillus subtilis by native mass spectrometry

Kay, Kristine (2016) Studies of copper trafficking proteins from Bacillus subtilis by native mass spectrometry. Doctoral thesis, University of East Anglia.

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    Copper is essential for life, but potentially toxic due to its ability to redox cycle and
    displace metal cofactors. Therefore, ubiquitous protein networks exist to safely handle and
    deliver copper. Copper is removed from the cell via an integral membrane P1B-ATPase,
    characterised by its soluble metal-binding domains (MBDs) which receive copper from
    Atx1-like copper chaperones in the cytoplasm. The mechanism of copper removal is unknown.
    Low molecular weight thiol species (LMWT) may play a role in cellular copper
    trafficking. The metallochaperone (CopZ) and soluble domains of the ATPase (CopAab)
    from Bacillus subtilis each bind Cu(I) with high affinity/specificity and form higher-order
    assemblies. Native electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) revealed formation
    of multiple copper-bound species with increasing Cu(I) level; cooperative formation of
    Cu4(CopZ)2 and Cu6(CopAab)2 was observed. The affinity for Cu(I) of bacillithiol (BSH),
    the primary LMWT in the B.subtilis cytoplasm, was determined to be b2 = 4.1 x 1017 M-2.
    ESI-MS revealed reduced intensity of dimeric forms of CopZ and CopAab in the presence of
    BSH (and other LMWT) due to copper competition; bacillithiolation of CopZ was observed.
    Higher order copper-bound complexes were observed for metallochaperones from Streptomyces
    lividans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and their decrease in the presence of
    LMWT. Rapid and reversible copper transfer between CopZ and CopAab was observed
    with similar rate constants at 25°C for forward (247 ± 2.2 s-1) and reverse (258 ± 2.6
    s-1) directions of transfer. The rate constant was independent of concentration, suggesting
    the rate-limiting step is first-order, and likely to be protein complex formation. Kinetic
    studies demonstrated that protein complex formation resulted in a 7-fold increase in the
    rate of copper transfer; a copper-bound CopZ:CopAab complex was observed via ESI-MS.
    Bidirectional copper transfer between CopZ and CopAab consistent with a regulatory role
    for the MBDs.

    Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
    Faculty \ School: Faculty of Science > School of Chemistry
    Depositing User: Gillian Aldus
    Date Deposited: 22 Feb 2017 14:14
    Last Modified: 31 Jan 2018 01:38

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